Reproduction And Development

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Reproduction And Development

  1. 1. Reproduction and Development
  2. 2. Reproductive system <ul><li>Production of sex cells is controlled by hormones </li></ul><ul><li>In humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal fertilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal development </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Gamete Production <ul><li>In females it occurs in the ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>In males it occurs in the testes </li></ul><ul><li>It is regulated by hormones </li></ul>
  4. 4. Female Reproductive System <ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fallopian tubes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of fertilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cervix and Birth Canal </li></ul>
  5. 5. Male Reproductive System <ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul><ul><li>Vas Deferens </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Cowper’s Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Seminal Vesicles </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sperm <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locomotion </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hormones <ul><li>Testosterone: Development of male secondary sex characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen: Development of female secondary sex characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone: along with estrogen, helps prepare uterine wall for pregnancy. Maintains uterine lining during pregnancy (pregnancy hormone) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hormonal Regulation of Reproduction <ul><li>Hormones regulate the menstrual cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen thickens the uterine wall </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone maintains that lining </li></ul>
  9. 9. Menstrual Cycle <ul><li>Ovulation: Release of the egg </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus Luteum: Yellow body, temporary endocrine structure, produces progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle repeats itself every 28 days. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fertilization <ul><li>If sperm are present fertilization will occur in the fallopian tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Zygote starts to develop and implant itself in the uterine wall. </li></ul><ul><li>This is controlled by hormones also </li></ul>
  11. 11. Early Development <ul><li>Fertilization  Zygote  Embryo (3 rd week to 8 th week)  Fetus (8 weeks to birth) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Development <ul><li>Placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Umbilical cord </li></ul>
  13. 13. 6 weeks
  14. 14. 4 Months
  15. 15. The First Few Months <ul><li>The first few months are most critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells differentiate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxins from mother can affect development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Development Continues <ul><li>After birth, cell differentiation and development continues to adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>During adulthood, structures age. </li></ul><ul><li>Organism weakens and dies. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reproductive Technologies <ul><li>Artificial insemination </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning </li></ul><ul><li>Cryopreservation </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo Transfer </li></ul>

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