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Immune System


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Immune System

  1. 1. Immune System
  2. 2. Immune System <ul><li>A collection of mechanisms within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and destroying pathogens and tumor cells </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pathogens <ul><li>Anything in an organism that is not “self” </li></ul><ul><li>Body can recognize “self” and identify pathogens based on cell receptors </li></ul>
  4. 4. What happens when something gets into the body? <ul><li>They would have needed to first pass through our surface barrier </li></ul><ul><li>This can happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Our next level of immune system now goes to work </li></ul>
  5. 5. Innate Immune system <ul><li>Workhorse of the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Nonspecific, will try to defend against any intruder. </li></ul><ul><li>Include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular barriers </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Inflammation
  7. 7. Complement System <ul><li>System of Proteins that help the body recognize and quickly rid itself of pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 20 or proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Some are proteases and assist in killing pathogens </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cellular barriers <ul><li>White blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Many different types </li></ul><ul><li>Each type has a different role, or area </li></ul><ul><li>Engulf pathogens and break them down </li></ul>
  9. 9. Adaptive Immunity <ul><li>Our bodies can remember pathogens, and make specific defenses against them </li></ul><ul><li>This is called an immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes specific antigens </li></ul>
  10. 10. How does this work? <ul><li>Antigen Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocyte engulfs pathogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks it down into its pieces or antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocyte “presents” antigens to helper Tcells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This leads to….. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Clonal Selection <ul><li>When there is a match between Tcell and antigen…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tcell divides and multiplies rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces B Cells which will produce antibodies, and other memory Tcells </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Antibodies <ul><li>Produced by Bcells </li></ul><ul><li>Lock onto antigens and signal them for destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies also deactivate antigens </li></ul>
  13. 13. Induced fit <ul><li>Antibodies act similar to enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific for what they work on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not lock and key model, but induced fit </li></ul>
  14. 14. Immunological Memory <ul><li>Antibodies will remain in the bloodstream and circulate looking for their specific antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Memory cells will also continue to circulate </li></ul>
  15. 15. Vaccines <ul><li>Genetic material from a pathogen is removed </li></ul><ul><li>Injected into body </li></ul><ul><li>Body produces antibodies against pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Body now has memory cells against pathogen </li></ul>
  16. 16. Disorders of the Immune System <ul><li>Three major types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunodeficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypersensitivities </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Immunodeficiency <ul><li>When one or more components of the immune system are missing or inactive </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to respond to pathogens is diminished </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient deficiency </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. AIDS <ul><li>Acquired Immunodeficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks ability to produce lymphocytes that are crucial to the immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With out these cells patient becomes susceptible to oppurtunistic infections </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Autoimmunity <ul><li>When immune system fails to recognize difference between self and no self </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Systemic Lupus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system can attack any part of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart, Lungs, Joints, Blood Vessels, Liver, Kidneys </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Hypersensitivities <ul><li>The immune system has decided to produce a respond to an antigen that is not dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>ex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food allergies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal allergies </li></ul></ul>