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Respiratory System and Immune System


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Respiratory System and Immune System

  1. 1. Respiratory System
  2. 2. Function <ul><li>To exchange gases with the surrounding environment </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 in, CO 2 out </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mechanism <ul><li>CO 2 is a waste product of cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>It is carried in the blood as a Carbonate (carbonic acid) </li></ul><ul><li>The medulla oblongata keeps track of blood acidity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Organs involved <ul><li>Mouth, Nose </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchus </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul>
  5. 5. Protection From External Environment <ul><li>All passageways of the respiratory system are kept moist, and most are lined with mucous </li></ul><ul><li>This is to keep air flowing freely, and to trap dirt and bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>We also have some cilia lined air passageways to prevent dirt from entering our lungs (nasal passages, and Trachea) </li></ul>
  6. 6. How does it work? <ul><li>Lungs are not muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribcage expands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs expand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air rushes in to fill up empty space </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How does it work? <ul><li>Exhaling is generally a passive process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm relaxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs compress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces out air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You can also use the muscles around your ribcage to constrict your chest more, expelling more air </li></ul>
  8. 8. Diffusion Confusion <ul><li>Alveoli are to the respiratory system like villi to the digestive system, and like the nephron to the excretory system </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASED SURFACE AREA LEADS TO MORE GAS EXCHANGE!! </li></ul>
  9. 10. Diffusion <ul><li>Alveoli are where circulatory system meet the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Site of gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>High concentration to low concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Same process drive absorption of nutrients and wastes </li></ul>
  10. 11. Homeostatic Control <ul><li>Feedback loops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased muscular activity leads to more cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased cellular respiration leads to increased levels of Carbon Dioxide in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to high acid levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triggers Medulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla sends signal to increase respiratory rate </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Disorders <ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>COPD </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Lung Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Others….. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Immune System <ul><li>Pathogens can get into the body </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph system and Circulatory system </li></ul>
  13. 14. Immunity <ul><li>The ability of an organism to resist foreign organisms or invaders which enter its body.  </li></ul>
  14. 15. Layered Defense <ul><li>Humans have three layers of protection against pathogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1- Physical barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2- Innate immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3- Adaptive immune response </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Physical Barrier
  16. 17. Innate Immune System <ul><li>A non-specific response to pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Many different WBC </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytes , mast cells , eosinophils , basophils , and natural killer cells . </li></ul><ul><li>Attack and destroy (phagocytosis) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Adaptive Immunity <ul><li>Immune system has a memory </li></ul><ul><li>It can produce antibodies to certain pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Next time pathogen enters body antibodies deactivate, and tag it for destruction </li></ul>
  18. 19. Vaccines <ul><li>Rely on adaptive immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Inject inactive pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Body develops antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>If invaded, you already have the antibodies to fight it off </li></ul>
  19. 20. Allergies <ul><li>Overactive immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Body identifies harmless substance as a pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Produces immune defense (sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, mucus production increase) </li></ul>
  20. 21. Autoimmune Diseases <ul><li>Disease in which the immune system targets it’s own body cells for destruction </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  21. 22. AIDS <ul><li>Acquired Immune Defiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS is a viral disease which destroys the ability of the immune system to produce antibodies, so the afflicted individual is unable to cope with infections and cancer cells which arise within the body. </li></ul></ul>