Gagnes Cognitive Theory


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Gagnes Cognitive Theory

  1. 1. Cognitivist Theory of Learning Robert Gagne Presented by : KPLI SN 1 Chew Chooi Mooi Hasmawati Binti Abu Bakar Khairul Anuar Bin Hashim
  2. 2. <ul><li>Born in 1916 in North Andover, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Received Bachelors of Arts and earned his doctoral from Brown University </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Robert Gagne’s Theoretical Background
  3. 3. <ul><li>Well known for theory of conditional learning </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of 3 distinct component : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomy of learning outcomes - learning domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific learning condition - Hierarchy of Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 instructional events </li></ul></ul>Robert Gagne’s Background & Published Works
  4. 4. <ul><li>Refers to a set of component skills that must be learned before the complex skill of which they are a part can be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying different types of learning in term of the degree of complexity of the mental involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher orders of learning build upon the lower levels. </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest 4 orders tend to focus on the more behavioural aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>The highest 4 focus on the more cognitive aspects </li></ul>Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning
  5. 5. Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning Increasing complexity More to behavioural aspects More to cognitive aspects Problem Solving Principle Learning Concept Learning Multiple Discrimination Learning Verbal Association Learning Psychomotor Connection Learning Stimulus – Response Learning Signal Learning
  6. 6. Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning <ul><li>1) Signal Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to respond to a signal, like Pavlov’s dog (Pavlov’s classical conditioned response) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually the response is emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Stimulus(S) – Response(R) Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn precise response to precise signal / stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different from signal learning, signal learning leads to involuntary responses, whereas the responses in S-R learning are voluntarily controlled.   </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning <ul><li>3) Psychomotor Connection Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when a chain of stimuli and responses are formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lean to to follow procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to chain 2 or more stimulus-response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Verbal Association Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use terminology in verbal chains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5) Multiple Discrimination Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to distinguish between similar stimuli </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning <ul><ul><li>Make different responses to each type of stimulus, even when they may be perceptually similar .  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6) Concept Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singular / common response to an entire class of stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7) Principle Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed as a chain of two or more concepts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to apply rules </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>8) Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest learning type which lead to the discovery of higher order rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All other types of learning must have been completed for it to be present. </li></ul></ul>Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning
  10. 10. <ul><li>When the Events of Instruction occur, internal learning processes take place that lead to various learning outcomes. ( Campos, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>The Events of Instruction constitute a set of communications to the student, which have the aim of aiding the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal processes of learning. ( Gagne, Briggs, & Wager, 1988) </li></ul><ul><li>This theory outlines nine instructional events and their corresponding processes. </li></ul>Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction
  11. 11. Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction
  12. 12. Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction <ul><li>1) Gain Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use an “interest device” that grabs learner’s attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Inform Learner of Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Stimulate Recall Prior Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associating new information with prior knowledge / experiences can facilitate the learning process </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction <ul><li>4) Present The Material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new content is actually presented to the learner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content should be chunked and organized meaningfully, and typically is explained and then demonstrated. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5) Provide Guidance For Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To help learners encode information for long-term storage, additional guidance should be provided along with the presentation of new content </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction <ul><li>6) Elicit Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice by letting the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7) Provide Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show correctness of the learner's response, analyze learner's behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8) Assess Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test / assessment to determine if the lesson has been learned. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction <ul><li>9) Enhance Retention & Transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform the learner about similar problem situations, provide additional practice, put the learner in a transfer situation, review the lesson. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Learning Domains : 5 types of learning outcome To draw a chart for organizing data. To reason backwards to solve problem. Breaking up a problem into various parts. Ability to control the individual’s behaviour to learn, remember & think. Cognitive strategy Identify the diagonal of a square. Explaining why ice freezes at 0˚C. Predicting the rate of growth of a plant based on conditions of water, soil, light, etc. Ability to interact with surroundings using concept symbols Intellectual skill Performance example Meaning Outcome or Ability
  17. 17. Making choices in the preparation of an insects collection. Visit science museum voluntarily & choose to borrow a book on dinosaurs. Change of attitude towards an object, another person, situation @ change in effective domain. Attitude Preparing a microscope slide. Build a model of a simple machine. Measuring the weight of an object using a balance. Manipulative skills & carrying out routine work. Motor skills Naming the parts of an electric circuit & the function of each part. Listing objects that can be recycled. Stating characteristic of light. Development of information using language Verbal Information Performance example Meaning Outcome or Ability