Learning Theory by Jean Piaget


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Learning Theory by Jean Piaget

  1. 1. KPLI SCIENCE 1 (2008) <ul><li>TOPIC : </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development : </li></ul><ul><li>A) Sensorimotor Stage </li></ul><ul><li>B) Pre-Operational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared By : </li></ul><ul><li>MOHD FARIED HARON </li></ul><ul><li>AINUS SAKINAH ABDUL KARIM </li></ul><ul><li>EZRIN NIZA GHAZALLI </li></ul>
  2. 2. BIOGRAPHY Jean Piaget Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896 Began his career as a biologist : Major In Malacologist Published first paper about an Albino Sparrow (10 years old)
  3. 3. A) The Sensorimotor Stage <ul><li>Lasts from birth to 2 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Infant uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Begins with reflexes and ending with complex combinations of sensorimotor skills. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Primary circular reactions (1-4 month) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An action of his/her own which serves as a stimulus to which it responds with the same action. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e.g. the baby may suck her thumb and she will repeat this action again and again because it feels good. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Secondary circular reactions (4-12 month) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve an act that extends out to the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things begin to show out well & have the ability to recognize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e.g. - She may squeeze a rubber duckie.  It goes “quack.”  That’s great, so do it again, and again, and again. </li></ul><ul><li>- She is learning “procedures that make interesting things last.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>3) Tertiary circular reactions (12-24 month) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consist of the same “making interesting things last” cycle, except with constant variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child developing mental representation (around 1 and a half years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the ability to hold an image in their mind for a period beyond the immediate experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use mental combination to solve simple problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e.g. - putting down a toy in order to open a door. </li></ul><ul><li>- able to manage simple toys such as Lego’s </li></ul>
  5. 5. PREOPERATIONAL STAGE <ul><li>2-7 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Development of symbolic thought </li></ul><ul><li>In the preoperational period, sensorimotor functioning </li></ul><ul><li>decreases and the use of conceptual representation </li></ul><ul><li>increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Children typically begin using spoken words as symbols </li></ul><ul><li>in one-word sentences around age 2; by age four they </li></ul><ul><li>can speak and comprehend language remarkably well </li></ul><ul><li>(Santrock, 1983). </li></ul><ul><li>There are four main characteristics of the preoperational </li></ul><ul><li>stage of a child’s cognitive development: centration, </li></ul><ul><li>egocentrism, irreversibility and animism </li></ul>
  6. 6. Centration <ul><li>Focus only one feature of problems </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. they may not understand you when you tell </li></ul><ul><li> them “Your father is my husband” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Irreversibility <ul><li>Inability to visualize reversible action </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. A child during pre-operational stage is not capable of </li></ul><ul><li>reversible thought. For example, you ask a pre-operational child: What is a duck? The child answers: it is a bird. You ask further: What would happen to the ducks if </li></ul><ul><li>all birds were killed? Would there be any duck left? The child would answer in affirmation. You ask why and the child will say that they have gone for swimming or have fled. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Egocentric <ul><li>unable to share another person’s idea/view </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. when given a three-dimensional model, the child expects that the person on the other side of the model is viewing the same thing as him or her </li></ul>
  9. 9. Animism <ul><li>belief that all things have lives. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. children tend to refer to inanimate objects (non-living objects) as if they have life-like qualities and are capable of actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Children consider these objects as having emotions, motives, intentions, thoughts, and desires. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>All activities done shows that : </li></ul><ul><li>Childs (from birth to 2 years old) begins to interact with the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing that an object still exists although it has been hidden </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentric in nature (focusing on one’s self) </li></ul>
  11. 11. PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT & ITS IMPLICATION IN THE SCIENCE CLASSROOM TEACHING <ul><li>Concrete operational stage (age 7-11) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal operational stage (age 11 and above) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Introduction <ul><li>What is Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development? </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of an experience on a person’s way of thinking depends on that person’s age and previous experience. </li></ul><ul><li>The four stages as shown on the diagram </li></ul>
  13. 13. Piaget’s Theory Sensory-Motor (Age 0-2 years) Pre-Operational (Age 2-7 years) Concrete-Operational (Age 7-11 years) Formal-Operational (Age 11 years and above)
  14. 14. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE <ul><li>Elementary and early adolescence – age 7 until approximately age 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of reversibility – e.g about numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Begin thinking logically about concrete events – e.g can metal sink? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concept – e.g how plant grow? </li></ul>
  16. 16. CONCRETE OPERATION STAGE <ul><li>Seriation - the ability to sort object in an order to size, shape or any other characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Classification - the ability to name and identify sets of objects according to appearance, size or other characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Decentering - where the child takes into account multiple aspects of a problem to solve it </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cont… <ul><li>Reversibility - where the child understands that numbers or objects can be changed, then returned to their original state </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation - understanding that quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to the arrangement or appearance of the object or items. E.g when a child is presented with two equally-sized, full cups they will be able to discern that if water is transferred to a pitcher it will conserve the quantity and be equal to the other filled cup </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of Egocentrism - the ability to view things from another's perspective </li></ul>
  18. 18. FORMAL OPERATION STAGE <ul><li>Adolescence and adulthood – around age 11 continue into adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>People are develop an ability to think about abstract concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract concepts - children begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive logic - the ability to use a general principle to determine a specific outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving - the ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way emerges </li></ul>
  19. 19. Implication in Science Classroom Teaching <ul><li>Children must discover certain concepts, such as the concept of conservation mainly on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, teaching any such concept means directing children’s attention to the key aspect & then letting them discover the concept for themselves </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cont. <ul><li>Teacher should determine a child’s level of functioning and then teach material appropriate to that level. Eg. Teachers should not try introducing abstract concepts to children who are at the concrete operations stage of development. </li></ul>