Learning Theory by Ausubel

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Learning Theory by Ausubel

  1. 1. Cognitive Learning Theories and its Implication on Science Classroom Teaching Presenters: Azlina Wati Bt. Aziz Azura Bt. Razali Lukman B. Che Hassan Yuhana Anom Bt Md. Yunos
  2. 2. <ul><li>David P. Ausubel was born in 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Grew up in Brooklyn, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Attended the University of Pennsylvania, taking the pre-medical course and majoring in Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>In 1973 he retired from academic life to devote full time to his psychiatric practice </li></ul><ul><li>His principal interests in psychiatry have been general psychopathology, ego development, drug addiction, and forensic psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>In 1976 he received the Thorndike Award from the American Psychological Association for &quot;Distinguished Psychological Contributions to Education&quot;. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction -Supported the theory that pupils form & organise knowledge by themselves -Emphasized the importance of verbal learning / language-related learning which he consider to be very effective for pupils of the age 11 or 12 & above
  4. 4. <ul><li>-Pupils gradually learn to associate new knowledge with existing concepts in their mental structures </li></ul><ul><li>-To ensure meaningful teaching, necessary to avoid rote memorising of facts. Pupils need to manipulate ideas actively </li></ul>
  5. 5. Advance Organizer -Presents an overview of the information to be covered in detail during the exposition that follows -Can be classified : exposition or comparison type
  6. 6. Advance Organizer of the Exposition Type <ul><li>-While presenting new material </li></ul><ul><li>-Use beginning of lesson </li></ul><ul><li>-Presents several encompassing generalisations where detailed contents will be added later </li></ul>
  7. 7. Advance Organizer of the Comparison Type <ul><li>-Useful when the knowledge to be presented is new to pupils </li></ul><ul><li>-Compares new material with knowledge already known by emphasising the similarities between 2 types of material & showing the information that is to be learnt </li></ul><ul><li>-Ausubel’s teaching approach is deductive in nature </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Step 4:The pupils study specific examples </li></ul>Step 3:The teacher presents examples ADVANCE ORGANIZER GENERAL SPECIFIC Step 2:The teacher explains important terms Step 1:The teacher presents general statement or abstraction of lesson Deductive Teaching Model: Advance Organizer as the basis of the lesson
  9. 9. Ausubel’s Meaningful Learning
  10. 10. Meaningful Reception Learning Theory A concerned with how students learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal/textual presentations in a learning activities Learning is based on the representational, superordinate and combinatorial processes that occur during the reception of information. A primary process in learning is subsumption in which new material is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure on a non-verbatim basis (previous knowledge) Meaningful learning results when new information is acquired by linking the new information in the learner's own cognitive structure
  11. 11. The processes of meaningful learning <ul><li>Ausubel proposed four processes by which meaningful learning can occur : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derivative subsumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlative subsumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superordinate learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combinatorial learning </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Derivative subsumption <ul><li>Describes the situation in which the new information pupils learn is an instance or example of a concept that pupils have already learned </li></ul><ul><li>Example (Stage 1) : </li></ul><ul><li>PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE : Let's suppose Ali have acquired a basic concept such as &quot;tree” – have green leave, branch, fruits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ali learn about a kind of tree that he have never seen before “persimmon tree” - conforms to his previous understanding of “tree’’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His new knowledge of persimmon trees is attached to the concept of tree , without substantially altering that concept in any way </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Correlative subsumption <ul><li>more &quot;valuable&quot; learning than that of derivative subsumption, since it enriches the higher-level concept </li></ul><ul><li>Example (Stage 2) : </li></ul><ul><li>Now, let's suppose Ali encounter a new kind of tree that has red leaves , rather than green </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate this new information Ali have to alter or extend your concept of “tree’’ to include the possibility of red leaves </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>In this case, you already knew a lot of examples of the concept, but you did not know the concept itself until it was taught to pupils. </li></ul>Superordinate learning <ul><li>Example (Stage 3) : </li></ul><ul><li>Ali was well acquainted with maples, oaks, apple trees etc., but pupils still did not know, until they were taught that these were all examples of deciduous trees </li></ul>
  15. 15. Combinatorial learning <ul><li>It describes a process by which the new idea is derived from another idea that is comes from his previous knowledge (in a different, but related, &quot;branch&quot; ) </li></ul><ul><li>Students could think of this as learning by analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Example (Stage 3) : </li></ul><ul><li>Ali learn about modification on the plants part , Ali might relate it to previously acquired knowledge of how papyrus tree used to produce paper </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>General ideas of a subject (general statement): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be presented first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>then progressively differentiated in terms of detail and specificity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instructional materials : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>should attempt to integrate new material with previously presented information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using comparisons and cross-referencing of new and old ideas. </li></ul></ul>Principles of Ausubel's Meaningful Reception Learning Theory within a classroom setting
  17. 17. <ul><li>Advance organizers : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructors should incorporate advance organizers when teaching a new concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructors should use a number of examples and focus on both similarities and differences. </li></ul></ul>Principles of Ausubel's Meaningful Reception Learning Theory within a classroom setting
  18. 18. The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows.. Thank You

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