4.1 launching the new nation

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  • 1. LAUNCHING THE NATION
  • 2. Inauguration – swear in George Washington – 1 st president John Adams – VP New York City – April 1789 precedent – example that becomes standard practice
  • 3. JUDICIARY ACT OF 1789 set up 3 levels of courts district courts federal courts the Supreme Court 5 justices + Chief Justice (John Jay) today – 9
  • 4. Cabinet president’s advisors Department of State – Thomas Jefferson handles relations with other countries Department of War – Henry Knox military matters Treasury Department – Alexander Hamilton raising $ & handling gov’t finances Attorney General – Edmund Randolph advise gov’t on legal matters Today – 15 positions
  • 5. Economics national debt – all $ owed by gov’t $11.7 million to foreign countries Bonds – certificates promising to repay $ with interest – extra $ in return for using $
  • 6. Capitalism Adam Smith – Scottish economist Most businesses are privately owned & operated Competition & free market determine product & price Keep the gov’t out of it & it will work!
  • 7. Hamilton’s Financial Plan Repay foreign debt immediately Repay bonds over time (full value) Some southern states had little debt This would benefit northern states that still had debt Jefferson AGAINST plan
  • 8. Compromise Jefferson offered his support IF new capital built in the South Ergo the District of Columbia Land donated by Maryland & Virginia on Potomac River
  • 9. Pierre L’Enfant architect who designed WDC removed because of his temper Benjamin Banneker self-educated, son of former slave, mathematician, surveyor recreated plan from memory finished building DC when L’Enfant left
  • 10. Strict construction gov’t had only powers that Constitution gives it Jefferson & Madison Loose construction gov’t can do anything Constitution doesn’t say it cannot do Hamilton (Washington ?)
  • 11. Hamilton established banks wanted protective tariff tax on imported goods in order to raise funds to put into banks established Bank of the United States (1791)
  • 12. Differences between Jefferson & Hamilton 1) interpretation of Constitution 2) national finances 3) Jefferson favored France Hamilton favored Britain 4) Jefferson = small, independent farmers Hamilton = manufacturing, industrialization, cities 1793 Jefferson resigns as Sect. of State Forms Democratic- Republican Party
  • 13. French Revolution was inspired by our revolution France & Great Britain went to war Neutrality Proclamation U.S. would not take sides in European conflict
  • 14. Trouble w/ British 1) British were seizing Am. ships 2) encouraging Indian raids on frontier Jay’s Treaty (compromise) 1) Br. pay damages to ships, let US ships trade in W. Indies 2) abandon frontier forts if U.S. pay pre-Rev. War debts
  • 15. Border disputes w/ Spanish along Florida & Louisiana Spain closed New Orleans (1784) Pinckney’s Treaty Feared our siding w/ G.B. Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel Spain granted Americans the right of deposit (allowed temporary storage w/out fees)
  • 16. DOMESTIC AFFAIRS Little Turtle had defeated U.S. forces in NW Territory “ Mad” Anthony Wayne sent to put down Indian uprising Battle of Fallen Timbers Indians fasted before battle Wayne waited 3 days Treaty of Greenville – gave US access to NW Territory
  • 17. Whiskey Rebellion (Pennsylvania) Congress taxed American-made whiskey (used as $) Farmers refused to pay tax Washington led 13,000 troops Ended the rebellion Proved 2 things: 1) Gov’t CAN enforce their laws 2) Citizens cannot pick & choose which laws they will obey
  • 18. Washington’s Farewell Address Wanted only 2 terms Reminded us he was a president - not a king Warned: 1) avoid political parties 2) foreign alliances 3) public debt
  • 19. Unique Transfer of power peacefully Prior to this by blood Blood lines or by shedding blood
  • 20. Election of 1796 John Adams & Thomas Pinckney (Federalists) Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr (Democratic- Republican Party) not the parties of today Adams won 71 electoral votes Jefferson won 68 electoral votes Result: only time in history to have a president from one party & VP from another
  • 21. XYZ Affair Pres. Adams sent 3 diplomats to France to improve relations Talleyrand (Fr. Foreign Minister) would not meet w/ them 3 French agents secret visit (X,Y,Z) Talk w/ Talleyrand for $250,000! France wanted a loan of $10 million! “ Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!”
  • 22. ALIEN & SEDITION ACTS Passed by Federalists in Congress Alien Act - President could remove foreign residents if involved in plots Sedition Act – US citizens could not speak out against gov’t Arrested 25 Republican newspaper editors States’ rights – states had right to ignore a law if they thought it was unconstitutional