The Beginnings Of America’S Government


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The Beginnings Of America’S Government

  1. 1. The Beginnings of America’s Government
  2. 2. President Washington <ul><li>Even though he wanted to retire he was elected first president </li></ul><ul><li>He established precedents that shaped future of the United States </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cabinet <ul><li>Congress established 3 executive departments </li></ul><ul><li>State Department-handle relations with other nations, headed by Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury Department to deal with financial matters, headed by Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>War Department to provide for the national defense, headed by Henry Knox </li></ul>
  4. 4. Judiciary Act of 1789 <ul><li>One group in Congress favored a national legal system </li></ul><ul><li>Other group favored state courts </li></ul><ul><li>The act established a federal court system with 13 district courts and 3 circuit courts </li></ul><ul><li>State laws remained but federal courts would have power to reverse state decisions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Whiskey Rebellion <ul><li>Farmers resisted paying a tax on the whiskey they made </li></ul><ul><li>July 1794, federal officers came into western Penn collect a tax </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers resistance turned into an armed protest known as the Whiskey Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Pres. Washington sent an army to quiet rebellion, this showed that government would use force to maintain social order </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problems in the West <ul><li>Native Americans who lived between App. Mountains and Mississippi River had trouble with new government </li></ul><ul><li>American settlers were ignoring treaties and moving into lands promised to Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Washington sent an army to restore order in the west </li></ul>
  7. 7. Treaty of Greenville <ul><li>After American army lost a few battles they defeated Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in August of 1794 </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Greenville was signed in 1785 to settle the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans agreed to surrender most of the land in present-day Ohio </li></ul>
  8. 8. Problems with Europe <ul><li>French Revolution began in 1789 and in 1793 France and Britain went to war </li></ul><ul><li>Washington wanted America to remain neutral </li></ul><ul><li>French tried to involve United States </li></ul><ul><li>Washington announced a Proclamation of Neutrality that prohibited Americans from fighting in the war and stopped British warships form American ports </li></ul>
  9. 9. Jay’s Treaty <ul><li>The British were capturing American ships that traded with the French and forcing their crews into the British navy </li></ul><ul><li>Washington sent John Jay to make a treaty to avoid war with Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Jay’s Treaty said Britain shall </li></ul><ul><li>1 withdraw from American soil </li></ul><ul><li>2 pay damages for ships they seized </li></ul><ul><li>3 allow some American ships to trade with British colonies in Caribbean </li></ul>
  10. 10. Jay’s Treaty Approved <ul><li>Even though the treaty was controversial and Washington himself didn’t favor it but it was approved by a slim margin </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pinckney Treaty <ul><li>To settle differences with Spain, Thomas Pinckney went to Spain in 1795 </li></ul><ul><li>Pinckney Treaty gave Americans the right to navigate the Mississippi River and also the right to trade at the port of New Orleans </li></ul>
  12. 12. Washington Says Goodbye <ul><li>Only served 2 terms </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly troubled by divisions in politics and political parties </li></ul><ul><li>In his farewell address he spoke against the evils of political parties </li></ul><ul><li>His speech is still read aloud in the Senate every year on his birthday </li></ul>