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World War I terms






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World War I terms World War I terms Presentation Transcript

  • World War I
  • Tension in Imperial Europe
    • During Imperial Age, European nations sought power through acquisition of colonies
    • Countries competed with each other for relative power
    • They began to get paranoid about their neighbors—If a war broke out, would they be strong enough to survive?
    • Nations began to look for ways to ensure their security
  • Militarism
    • Policy of aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war
  • Alliances
    • Secret treaties or informal understandings between nations that promised they would side together in the event of war
  • Gavrilo Princip
    • Bosnian-Serb terrorist and nationalist who assassinated Franz Ferdinand
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    • Heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne. His assassination was the spark that ignited the war.
  • Brinksmanship
    • A strategy where a country seeks an advantage by creating the impression that they are willing and able to push a situation to the point of war in order to get their demands
  • Mobilization
    • The readying of troops for war
  • Ultimatum
    • A statement, especially in diplomatic negotiations, that expresses or implies the threat of serious penalties if the terms are not accepted
  • Road to war
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II
    • German leader during World War I. He declared war on Russia and invaded France.
  • Allied Forces
    • The group of nations that opposed the Central Powers; originally consisting of Great Britain, France and Russia and later joined by the U.S., Italy and others
  • Central Powers
    • The group of nations--led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire--that opposed the Allied Forces
  • Military Alliances before the war
  • Schlieffen Plan
    • German plan of attack to avoid a 2-front war: first quickly take out France, then focus troops on Russia
  • “ Rape of Belgium”
    • German war crimes committed during the march through neutral Belgium on the way to Paris
  • Race for the Sea
    • Early in the war when both sides tried to outflank each other; resulted in a front line of trenches over 200 miles long
  • Trench warfare
    • A form of warfare where opponents occupy static (non-moving) fighting lines, especially fortified trenches in the ground.
  • No Man’s Land
    • Area between the two opposing lines of trenches
  • Barbed wire
    • Formed a barrier to attacking soldiers attempting to cross no man's land
  • Mustard gas
    • First used by Germans in 1917; one of several poison gases used during the war
  • Machine Guns
  • Tanks
  • Aircraft
  • Manfred von Richthofen
    • a.k.a. The "Red Baron," a German fighter pilot who shot down 80 enemy planes and commanded the Flying Circus
  • Stalemate
    • A situation in which neither side can gain the advantage
  • Shell shock
    • Battle fatigue; a range of behaviors brought on by exposure to combat and acute psychological stress
    The “Thousand-yard stare” -- 
  • Total war
    • The organization of entire societies for war in a social, economic, and even spiritual sense.
  • War of attrition
    • A war that is won by slowly wearing down the enemy through prolonged casualties and loss of resources
  • Woodrow Wilson
    • U.S. President during World War I
  • Isolationism
    • Foreign policy of neutrality and non-involvement
    • Wilson made a declaration of neutrality just days into the war
  • Blockade
    • An effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force
    • England used their powerful navy to cut off Germany
    • Some estimate 750,000 Germans died of starvation
  • U.S. Exports
    • After war began, U.S. traded even more Allies
    • U.S. economy boomed from supplying Allies with war materials and extending credit
  • U-boat
    • German submarine (Unterseeboot)
    • Germany began targeting merchant ships
  • Lusitania
    • British passenger ship sunk off coast of Ireland by German submarine; 128 Americans dead, led to U.S. outrage
  • American Reaction
    • Wilson issues warning to Germany
    • He affirms Britain’s right to blockade Germany but demands Germany stop attacks on ships
    • Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest of U.S. non-neutrality
  • Germany Resumes Attacks
    • Germany declares they will attack without warning after all
    • Submarine attacks seen as unfair tactic by Americans
  • Zimmerman Telegram
    • Telegram intercepted by British intelligence
    • German ambassador asks Mexico to enter the war on the German side
    • In return Germany promises to help them recover territory they lost in the Mexican War
  • Autocrat
    • A ruler with unlimited power
    • Russian Revolution ends their autocracy
    • Makes it easier for U.S. to justify war “to make the world safe for democracy”
    • Russia out of war, leaving France and Britain vulnerable
    • Wilson declares war on April 6, 1917
  • American Expeditionary Force
    • American forces sent to Europe
  • Harlem Hellfighters
    • 369th (Colored) Infantry Regiment integrated into the French Army
    • Received France's highest combat medal
  • Selective Service Act of 1917
    • Act that authorized the draft
    • Draft began almost immediately
  • "Four Minute Men"
    • 75,000 volunteers recruited by the Committee on Public Information
    • Gave 4-minute speeches in support of the war effort
    • Helped turn public opinion
  • Espionage Act of 1917
    • Made it illegal to oppose the draft
  • Sedition
    • Speech or actions meant to incite rebellion against a government
  • Sedition Act of 1918
    • Made it illegal to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or to discuss anything "disloyal" to the U.S. government
  • Charles Schenck
    • Anti-war activist who was arrested for distributing pamphlets urging men to avoid the draft.
  • Schenck v. United States
    • Established restrictions of freedom of speech in cases of "clear and present danger"
    Oliver Wendell Holmes
  • Liberty bonds
    • Bonds sold to promote the war effort; heavily-promoted by the government
  • Women on the Homefront
    • Shortage of male labor led to women being hired to do work traditionally done by men
  • Workers were especially needed to produce war supplies
  • Great Migration
    • Massive numbers of African-Americans also migrated North for jobs previously closed to them
  • Armistice
    • Cease-fire
    • November 11, 1918
  • Fourteen Points
    • President Woodrow Wilson drafted 14-point plan for peace in 1918
    • First presented to joint session of Congress before war to justify entry in moral terms
    • Later presented at Versailles peace conference after the war, but failed to win approval of all 14 points into final treaty
    • Wilson advocated “Peace without victory”
  • Main Points
    • No secret alliances
    • Freedom of the seas
    • Removal of trade barriers (tariffs, etc.)
    • Reduce military to just what’s necessary to protect your own country
    • Let go of some colonies
    • Create a League of Nations
  • Treaty of Versailles
    • Treaty that ended the war
    • June 28, 1919
  • Big Four
    • Countries at the table: *U.S. *Italy *France *Great Britain
    • Germany and Russia excluded
  • Reparations
    • Payments from an enemy for economic costs of war
  • Terms of the Treaty
    • Germany humiliated: --Charged with war crimes --Forced to accept guilt for the war --Must drastically reduce military --Allow France to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years --Give up territory --Pay reparations
    • France wanted revenge and security against any future German threat
  • League of Nations
    • International body proposed by Woodrow Wilson to ensure peace and stability after the war through cooperation and accountability
  • Ratification
    • Congressional approval of a bill
    • Wilson tours country making speeches
  • Failure to Ratify
    • Congress fails to ratify
    • League is weak without U.S.
    • Wilson collapses from stroke
  • Irreconcilables
    • Would not accept U.S. membership in the League of Nations, no matter what
  • Reservationists
    • Would accept the League of Nations with reservations
    Henry Cabot Lodge
  • Dulce Et Decorum Est
    • Poem written by British poet and solider Wilfred Owen, famous for its horrific imagery of war
    • Owen died in battle shortly before the armistice