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World War I terms

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    World War I terms World War I terms Presentation Transcript

    • World War I
    • Tension in Imperial Europe
      • During Imperial Age, European nations sought power through acquisition of colonies
      • Countries competed with each other for relative power
      • They began to get paranoid about their neighbors—If a war broke out, would they be strong enough to survive?
      • Nations began to look for ways to ensure their security
    • Militarism
      • Policy of aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war
    • Alliances
      • Secret treaties or informal understandings between nations that promised they would side together in the event of war
    •  
    • Gavrilo Princip
      • Bosnian-Serb terrorist and nationalist who assassinated Franz Ferdinand
    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand
      • Heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne. His assassination was the spark that ignited the war.
    • Brinksmanship
      • A strategy where a country seeks an advantage by creating the impression that they are willing and able to push a situation to the point of war in order to get their demands
    • Mobilization
      • The readying of troops for war
    • Ultimatum
      • A statement, especially in diplomatic negotiations, that expresses or implies the threat of serious penalties if the terms are not accepted
    • Road to war
    • Kaiser Wilhelm II
      • German leader during World War I. He declared war on Russia and invaded France.
    • Allied Forces
      • The group of nations that opposed the Central Powers; originally consisting of Great Britain, France and Russia and later joined by the U.S., Italy and others
    • Central Powers
      • The group of nations--led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire--that opposed the Allied Forces
    • Military Alliances before the war
    • Schlieffen Plan
      • German plan of attack to avoid a 2-front war: first quickly take out France, then focus troops on Russia
    •  
    • “ Rape of Belgium”
      • German war crimes committed during the march through neutral Belgium on the way to Paris
    • Race for the Sea
      • Early in the war when both sides tried to outflank each other; resulted in a front line of trenches over 200 miles long
    •  
    • Trench warfare
      • A form of warfare where opponents occupy static (non-moving) fighting lines, especially fortified trenches in the ground.
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    • No Man’s Land
      • Area between the two opposing lines of trenches
    • Barbed wire
      • Formed a barrier to attacking soldiers attempting to cross no man's land
    • Mustard gas
      • First used by Germans in 1917; one of several poison gases used during the war
    •  
    • Machine Guns
    • Tanks
    • Aircraft
    • Manfred von Richthofen
      • a.k.a. The "Red Baron," a German fighter pilot who shot down 80 enemy planes and commanded the Flying Circus
    • Stalemate
      • A situation in which neither side can gain the advantage
    • Shell shock
      • Battle fatigue; a range of behaviors brought on by exposure to combat and acute psychological stress
      The “Thousand-yard stare” -- 
    • Total war
      • The organization of entire societies for war in a social, economic, and even spiritual sense.
    • War of attrition
      • A war that is won by slowly wearing down the enemy through prolonged casualties and loss of resources
    •  
    • Woodrow Wilson
      • U.S. President during World War I
    • Isolationism
      • Foreign policy of neutrality and non-involvement
      • Wilson made a declaration of neutrality just days into the war
    • Blockade
      • An effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force
      • England used their powerful navy to cut off Germany
      • Some estimate 750,000 Germans died of starvation
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    • U.S. Exports
      • After war began, U.S. traded even more Allies
      • U.S. economy boomed from supplying Allies with war materials and extending credit
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    • U-boat
      • German submarine (Unterseeboot)
      • Germany began targeting merchant ships
    • Lusitania
      • British passenger ship sunk off coast of Ireland by German submarine; 128 Americans dead, led to U.S. outrage
    • American Reaction
      • Wilson issues warning to Germany
      • He affirms Britain’s right to blockade Germany but demands Germany stop attacks on ships
      • Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest of U.S. non-neutrality
    •  
    • Germany Resumes Attacks
      • Germany declares they will attack without warning after all
      • Submarine attacks seen as unfair tactic by Americans
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    • Zimmerman Telegram
      • Telegram intercepted by British intelligence
      • German ambassador asks Mexico to enter the war on the German side
      • In return Germany promises to help them recover territory they lost in the Mexican War
    • Autocrat
      • A ruler with unlimited power
      • Russian Revolution ends their autocracy
      • Makes it easier for U.S. to justify war “to make the world safe for democracy”
      • Russia out of war, leaving France and Britain vulnerable
      • Wilson declares war on April 6, 1917
    • American Expeditionary Force
      • American forces sent to Europe
    • Harlem Hellfighters
      • 369th (Colored) Infantry Regiment integrated into the French Army
      • Received France's highest combat medal
    • Selective Service Act of 1917
      • Act that authorized the draft
      • Draft began almost immediately
    • "Four Minute Men"
      • 75,000 volunteers recruited by the Committee on Public Information
      • Gave 4-minute speeches in support of the war effort
      • Helped turn public opinion
    • Espionage Act of 1917
      • Made it illegal to oppose the draft
    • Sedition
      • Speech or actions meant to incite rebellion against a government
    • Sedition Act of 1918
      • Made it illegal to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or to discuss anything "disloyal" to the U.S. government
    • Charles Schenck
      • Anti-war activist who was arrested for distributing pamphlets urging men to avoid the draft.
    • Schenck v. United States
      • Established restrictions of freedom of speech in cases of "clear and present danger"
      Oliver Wendell Holmes
    • Liberty bonds
      • Bonds sold to promote the war effort; heavily-promoted by the government
    • Women on the Homefront
      • Shortage of male labor led to women being hired to do work traditionally done by men
    • Workers were especially needed to produce war supplies
    •  
    • Great Migration
      • Massive numbers of African-Americans also migrated North for jobs previously closed to them
    •  
    • Armistice
      • Cease-fire
      • November 11, 1918
    • Fourteen Points
      • President Woodrow Wilson drafted 14-point plan for peace in 1918
      • First presented to joint session of Congress before war to justify entry in moral terms
      • Later presented at Versailles peace conference after the war, but failed to win approval of all 14 points into final treaty
      • Wilson advocated “Peace without victory”
    • Main Points
      • No secret alliances
      • Freedom of the seas
      • Removal of trade barriers (tariffs, etc.)
      • Reduce military to just what’s necessary to protect your own country
      • Let go of some colonies
      • Create a League of Nations
    • Treaty of Versailles
      • Treaty that ended the war
      • June 28, 1919
    • Big Four
      • Countries at the table: *U.S. *Italy *France *Great Britain
      • Germany and Russia excluded
    • Reparations
      • Payments from an enemy for economic costs of war
    • Terms of the Treaty
      • Germany humiliated: --Charged with war crimes --Forced to accept guilt for the war --Must drastically reduce military --Allow France to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years --Give up territory --Pay reparations
      • France wanted revenge and security against any future German threat
    • League of Nations
      • International body proposed by Woodrow Wilson to ensure peace and stability after the war through cooperation and accountability
    • Ratification
      • Congressional approval of a bill
      • Wilson tours country making speeches
    • Failure to Ratify
      • Congress fails to ratify
      • League is weak without U.S.
      • Wilson collapses from stroke
    • Irreconcilables
      • Would not accept U.S. membership in the League of Nations, no matter what
    • Reservationists
      • Would accept the League of Nations with reservations
      Henry Cabot Lodge
    • Dulce Et Decorum Est
      • Poem written by British poet and solider Wilfred Owen, famous for its horrific imagery of war
      • Owen died in battle shortly before the armistice
    •