the war
to
end all wars
 During Imperial Age, European nations
sought power through acquisition of colonies
 Countries competed with each other ...
 Policy of aggressively building up a nation’s
armed forces in preparation for war
 Secret treaties or
informal
understandings
between nations
that promised they
would side
together in the
event of war
 Bosnian-Serb terrorist and nationalist who
assassinated Franz Ferdinand
 Heir to theAustria-
Hungarian throne. His
assassination was the
spark that ignited the
war.
 A strategy where a country seeks an
advantage by creating the impression that
they are willing and able to push a situat...
 The readying of troops for war
 A statement, especially in diplomatic
negotiations, that expresses or implies the
threat of serious penalties if the ter...
 German leader duringWorld
War I. He declared war on
Russia and invaded France.
 The group of nations that opposed the
Central Powers; originally consisting of Great
Britain, France and Russia and late...
 The group of nations--led by
Germany,Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman
Empire--that opposed the Allied Forces
 German plan of attack to avoid a 2-front war:
first quickly take out France, then focus
troops on Russia
 German war crimes
committed during the march
through neutral Belgium on
the way to Paris
 Early in the war when both sides tried to
outflank each other; resulted in a front line of
trenches over 200 miles long
 A form of warfare where opponents occupy
static (non-moving) fighting lines, especially
fortified trenches in the ground.
 Area between the two opposing lines of
trenches
 Formed a barrier to attacking soldiers
attempting to cross no man's land
 First used by Germans in 1917; one of several
poison gases used during the war
Machine Guns
 a.k.a. The "Red Baron," a
German fighter pilot who
shot down 80 enemy planes
and commanded the Flying
Circus
 A situation in which neither side can gain the
advantage
 Battle fatigue; a range of behaviors brought
on by exposure to combat and acute
psychological stress
The
“Thousand-
yard...
 The organization of
entire societies for
war in a
social, economic, a
nd even spiritual
sense.
 A war that is won by slowly wearing down the
enemy through prolonged casualties and loss
of resources
 U.S. President duringWorldWar I
 Foreign policy of neutrality and non-
involvement
 Wilson made a declaration of neutrality just
days into the war
 An effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or
communications from a particular area by force
 England used their...
•After war
began, U.S.
traded even
more with Allies
•U.S. economy
boomed from
supplying Allies
with war
materials and
exte...
 German submarine (Unterseeboot)
 Germany began targeting merchant ships
 British passenger ship sunk off coast of
Ireland by German submarine; 128 Americans
dead, led to U.S. outrage
 Wilson issues warning to Germany
 He affirms Britain’s right to blockade
Germany but demands Germany
stop attacks on sh...
 At breaking point from blockade
 Germany makes calculated tactical decision
 Declares they will attack without warning...
 Telegram intercepted by British
intelligence
 German ambassador asks
Mexico to enter the war on the
German side
 In re...
 A ruler with unlimited power
 Russian Revolution ends their autocracy
 Makes it easier for U.S. to justify war “to mak...
 American forces sent to Europe
 369th (Colored)
Infantry Regiment
integrated into the
FrenchArmy
 Received France's
highest combat
medal
 Act that authorized
the draft
 Draft began almost
immediately
 Made it illegal to oppose the draft
 Speech or actions meant to incite rebellion
against a government
 Made it illegal to
obstruct the sale of
Liberty Bonds or to
discuss anything
"disloyal" to the
U.S. government
 Anti-war activist who was arrested for
distributing pamphlets urging men to avoid
the draft.
 Established restrictions of freedom of speech
in cases of "clear and present danger"
Oliver
Wendell
Holmes
 Committee on Public Information aimed to
unite public opinion
 Published over 75 million pieces of printed
material
 E...
 75,000 volunteers recruited
by the Committee on Public
Information
 Gave 4-minute speeches in
support of the war effort...
 War Industries Board coordinated production
of military supplies
 NationalWar Labor Board pressured
industries to grant...
 Bonds sold to promote the war effort;
heavily-promoted by the government
 $23 billion by 1920
 Victory gardens
 MeatlessTuesdays and
WheatlessWednesdays
 Production of alcohol
restricted to c...
 Shortage of
male labor led
to women
being hired to
do work
traditionally
done by men
Workers were
especially needed
to produce war
supplies
 Massive numbers of
African-Americans
also migrated North
for jobs previously
closed to them
 500,000 by 1920
 German names changed
 “Liberty sandwich,” “Liberty cabbage”
 Hot dog
I’m not a
frankfurter
Ja, du bist
ein
frankfurter
 Cease-fire
 November 11, 1918
 PresidentWoodrowWilson drafted
14-point plan for peace in 1918
 First presented to joint session of
Congress before war...
 No secret alliances
 Freedom of the seas
 Removal of trade barriers
(tariffs, etc.)
 Reduce military to just what’s
n...
 Treaty that
ended the
war
 June 28, 1919
 Countries at the
table:
*U.S.
*Italy
*France
*Great Britain
 Germany and
Russia excluded
 Everyone wanted
different th...
 Payments from an enemy
for economic costs of war
 Germany humiliated:
--Charged with war crimes
--Forced to accept guilt for the war
--Must drastically reduce military
--...
 International body
proposed byWoodrow
Wilson to ensure peace
and stability after the war
through cooperation and
account...
 Congressional
approval of a bill
 Wilson tours
country making
speeches
 Instead of
appealing to
Congressmen, he
courts...
 Congress fails to ratify
 League is weak without
U.S.
 Wilson in poor health;
collapses from stroke
 Would not accept U.S. membership in the
League of Nations, no matter what
 Would accept the League of Nations with
very specific (and numerous) reservations
Henry Cabot Lodge
 Poem written by British
poet and soliderWilfred
Owen, famous for its horrific
imagery of war
 Owen died in battle short...
DULCE ET DECORUM EST by
WILFRED OWEN
Bent double, like old beggars
under sacks, Knock-
kneed, coughing like hags, we
curse...
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
World War I Terms
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World War I Terms

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Terms for 10th grade U.S. History unit on World War I with period images of weaponry, combat, home-front propaganda, etc.

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  • Bosnian/Serbian struggle for independence. Austria-Hungary refused to recognize their independence. Led to nationalist uprising/movements. Princip a member of one of these groups. He resented occupation by A.H.
  • Killed (along with his wife) by Princip on a visit to Sarajevo.
  • a.k.a. “Bluffing”, playing “chicken,” “Russian roulette”
  • Recruiting and training soldiers, buying more weapons and ammo, getting ready to ship them out. Being prepared.
  • We all know about ultimatums from our parents—”If you don’t clean up this room, you’re grounded!”
  • Point out Serbia and Austria-Hungary. Explain AH’s reaction, then Serbia’s refusal, Russia’s entry due to alliance, etc.
  • His cousin was Czar Nicolas of Russia
  • Schlieffen Plan required Germany to march through Belgium in order to get to Paris ASAP, but Belgium was neutral. Also, Schlieffen Plan was developed in 1905, which is an excellent example of militarism and how countries had a militaristic mindset—they had been getting ready for this for years by the time it started.
  • Fastest route to Paris from German was through Belgium, which was neutral and trying to stay out of it. Germans invaded anyway.
  • Explain how the two armies met and kept trying to pass or get behind each other. Couldn’t outflank each other so in that way they sort of “leapfrogged” all the way to the sea.
  • R—Aerial view of network of trenches
  • Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori: Latin for “It is sweet and right to die for your country”
  • World War I Terms

    1. 1. the war to end all wars
    2. 2.  During Imperial Age, European nations sought power through acquisition of colonies  Countries competed with each other for relative power  They began to get paranoid about their neighbors—If a war broke out, would they be strong enough to survive?  Nations began to look for ways to ensure their security
    3. 3.  Policy of aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war
    4. 4.  Secret treaties or informal understandings between nations that promised they would side together in the event of war
    5. 5.  Bosnian-Serb terrorist and nationalist who assassinated Franz Ferdinand
    6. 6.  Heir to theAustria- Hungarian throne. His assassination was the spark that ignited the war.
    7. 7.  A strategy where a country seeks an advantage by creating the impression that they are willing and able to push a situation to the point of war in order to get their demands
    8. 8.  The readying of troops for war
    9. 9.  A statement, especially in diplomatic negotiations, that expresses or implies the threat of serious penalties if the terms are not accepted
    10. 10.  German leader duringWorld War I. He declared war on Russia and invaded France.
    11. 11.  The group of nations that opposed the Central Powers; originally consisting of Great Britain, France and Russia and later joined by the U.S., Italy and others
    12. 12.  The group of nations--led by Germany,Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire--that opposed the Allied Forces
    13. 13.  German plan of attack to avoid a 2-front war: first quickly take out France, then focus troops on Russia
    14. 14.  German war crimes committed during the march through neutral Belgium on the way to Paris
    15. 15.  Early in the war when both sides tried to outflank each other; resulted in a front line of trenches over 200 miles long
    16. 16.  A form of warfare where opponents occupy static (non-moving) fighting lines, especially fortified trenches in the ground.
    17. 17.  Area between the two opposing lines of trenches
    18. 18.  Formed a barrier to attacking soldiers attempting to cross no man's land
    19. 19.  First used by Germans in 1917; one of several poison gases used during the war
    20. 20. Machine Guns
    21. 21.  a.k.a. The "Red Baron," a German fighter pilot who shot down 80 enemy planes and commanded the Flying Circus
    22. 22.  A situation in which neither side can gain the advantage
    23. 23.  Battle fatigue; a range of behaviors brought on by exposure to combat and acute psychological stress The “Thousand- yard stare” --
    24. 24.  The organization of entire societies for war in a social, economic, a nd even spiritual sense.
    25. 25.  A war that is won by slowly wearing down the enemy through prolonged casualties and loss of resources
    26. 26.  U.S. President duringWorldWar I
    27. 27.  Foreign policy of neutrality and non- involvement  Wilson made a declaration of neutrality just days into the war
    28. 28.  An effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force  England used their powerful navy to cut off Germany  Some estimate 750,000 Germans died of starvation
    29. 29. •After war began, U.S. traded even more with Allies •U.S. economy boomed from supplying Allies with war materials and extending credit
    30. 30.  German submarine (Unterseeboot)  Germany began targeting merchant ships
    31. 31.  British passenger ship sunk off coast of Ireland by German submarine; 128 Americans dead, led to U.S. outrage
    32. 32.  Wilson issues warning to Germany  He affirms Britain’s right to blockade Germany but demands Germany stop attacks on ships  Secretary of State,William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest of U.S. non-neutrality
    33. 33.  At breaking point from blockade  Germany makes calculated tactical decision  Declares they will attack without warning after all  Figure they can win war with unrestricted submarine warfare before the U.S. could enter
    34. 34.  Telegram intercepted by British intelligence  German ambassador asks Mexico to enter the war on the German side  In return Germany promises to help them recover territory they lost in the MexicanWar  Last straw forWilson
    35. 35.  A ruler with unlimited power  Russian Revolution ends their autocracy  Makes it easier for U.S. to justify war “to make the world safe for democracy”  Russia out of war, leaving France and Britain vulnerable  Wilson declares war on April 6, 1917
    36. 36.  American forces sent to Europe
    37. 37.  369th (Colored) Infantry Regiment integrated into the FrenchArmy  Received France's highest combat medal
    38. 38.  Act that authorized the draft  Draft began almost immediately
    39. 39.  Made it illegal to oppose the draft
    40. 40.  Speech or actions meant to incite rebellion against a government
    41. 41.  Made it illegal to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or to discuss anything "disloyal" to the U.S. government
    42. 42.  Anti-war activist who was arrested for distributing pamphlets urging men to avoid the draft.
    43. 43.  Established restrictions of freedom of speech in cases of "clear and present danger" Oliver Wendell Holmes
    44. 44.  Committee on Public Information aimed to unite public opinion  Published over 75 million pieces of printed material  Encouraged journalists to use “self- censorship”
    45. 45.  75,000 volunteers recruited by the Committee on Public Information  Gave 4-minute speeches in support of the war effort  Helped turn public opinion
    46. 46.  War Industries Board coordinated production of military supplies  NationalWar Labor Board pressured industries to grant workers concessions in return for not striking  Other “War Boards” for railroads, fuel, food, etc.
    47. 47.  Bonds sold to promote the war effort; heavily-promoted by the government
    48. 48.  $23 billion by 1920  Victory gardens  MeatlessTuesdays and WheatlessWednesdays  Production of alcohol restricted to conserve grain
    49. 49.  Shortage of male labor led to women being hired to do work traditionally done by men
    50. 50. Workers were especially needed to produce war supplies
    51. 51.  Massive numbers of African-Americans also migrated North for jobs previously closed to them  500,000 by 1920
    52. 52.  German names changed  “Liberty sandwich,” “Liberty cabbage”  Hot dog I’m not a frankfurter Ja, du bist ein frankfurter
    53. 53.  Cease-fire  November 11, 1918
    54. 54.  PresidentWoodrowWilson drafted 14-point plan for peace in 1918  First presented to joint session of Congress before war to justify entry in moral terms  Later presented atVersailles peace conference after the war, but failed to win approval of all 14 points into final treaty  Wilson advocated “Peace without victory”
    55. 55.  No secret alliances  Freedom of the seas  Removal of trade barriers (tariffs, etc.)  Reduce military to just what’s necessary to protect your own country  Let go of some colonies  Create a League of Nations
    56. 56.  Treaty that ended the war  June 28, 1919
    57. 57.  Countries at the table: *U.S. *Italy *France *Great Britain  Germany and Russia excluded  Everyone wanted different things
    58. 58.  Payments from an enemy for economic costs of war
    59. 59.  Germany humiliated: --Charged with war crimes --Forced to accept guilt for the war --Must drastically reduce military --Allow France to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years --Give up territory --Pay reparations  France wanted revenge and security against any future German threat
    60. 60.  International body proposed byWoodrow Wilson to ensure peace and stability after the war through cooperation and accountability  Sentiment that the horrors of modern warfare was a beast that must be tamed
    61. 61.  Congressional approval of a bill  Wilson tours country making speeches  Instead of appealing to Congressmen, he courts public approval  Backfires
    62. 62.  Congress fails to ratify  League is weak without U.S.  Wilson in poor health; collapses from stroke
    63. 63.  Would not accept U.S. membership in the League of Nations, no matter what
    64. 64.  Would accept the League of Nations with very specific (and numerous) reservations Henry Cabot Lodge
    65. 65.  Poem written by British poet and soliderWilfred Owen, famous for its horrific imagery of war  Owen died in battle shortly before the armistice  WWI proved to be fertile ground for artists who used their art as a means of coming to terms with the horrors of modern warfare
    66. 66. DULCE ET DECORUM EST by WILFRED OWEN Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock- kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind. Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!---An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; But someone still was yelling out and stumbling, And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime... Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drown ing. If in some smothering dreams you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth- corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,--- My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.

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