Chapter 11 wwi


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World War I

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Chapter 11 wwi

  1. 1. Warm-up  What do people do when someone insults their friends?
  2. 2. World War I beginnings  Dates: 1914 to 1918  Causes: 1. Nationalism 2. Imperialism 3. Militarism 4. Alliances
  3. 3. Nationalism ○Devotion to the interests of one’s nation & culture ○competition between nations ○ethnic groups :independence ○Smaller nations sought protection from larger nations
  4. 4. Imperialism ○Competition among world powers for colonies that provided raw materials for industry
  5. 5. Militarism ○Development of armed forces & use in diplomacy ○Growth of imperialism & nationalism led to increased military spending
  6. 6. Alliances ○Countries who vow to defend each other in event of attack
  7. 7.  Immediate Cause: Starts in Balkan Peninsula “powder keg of Europe” Assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalist on June 1914
  8. 8. Chain Reaction  Austria Serbia (July 28) and Russia  Germany  Russia (August 1)  Germany  France (august 3)  Germany invades Belgium  Britain  Germany and Austria-Hungary
  9. 9. The Fight  Schlieffen Plan (Germany’s plan to win) Hold action against Russia Quickly move through Belgium to Paris After France fell, would move all troops to defeat Russia  Allies left Belgium & retreated to Marne River
  10. 10.  Allies halted German advance on Sept 1914  Both sides created system of trenches which they fought from  Known as trench warfare
  11. 11. Trench Warfare  Two parallel systems of trenches face each other  “No man’s land” in between  Soldiers fight back and forth for a few yards of land  Fighting is devastating and inconclusive
  12. 12. Crossing “No Man’s Land”
  13. 13. Veteran’s Day StarsVeteran’s Day Stars Rank Name Branch of Service Relation to you Brig. General (Ret.) Charles L. Bishop United States Air Force Grandfather of Austin Bishop
  14. 14. clip
  15. 15. Some super guns could fire up to 75 miles.
  16. 16. Effects of Mustard Gas
  17. 17. If the gas did not cause you to cough up your lungs it burned out your eyes.
  18. 18.  Both sides thought war would be over in couple of months (by Christmas 1914)  Both sides would be dug in for nearly FOUR YEARS
  19. 19. America Joins War  America :neutral at start of war (isolationism)  “European war” Did not threaten our people or property
  20. 20. Who did we support (Allies or Central Powers)? Support was divided Immigrants were very outspoken about war because for many this was fought in their homeland
  21. 21. Most sided with Allies We shared common ancestry & culture with England Stories of German brutality British propaganda helped to create this image of Germany as a “bully”
  22. 22. Our economic ties were stronger with Allies ○We shipped millions of dollars of war supplies to Allies ○Caused a labor shortage in this country
  23. 23.  America prepared for war for two reasons Ensure Allied repayment of debts Prevent Germans from threatening US shipping
  24. 24.  We still DID NOT WANT TO JOIN WAR but our interests needed protection  Incidents leading US to join the war: British blockade of Germany Germany responded with counter blockade using U- boats
  25. 25.  Sinking of British passenger ship (Lusitania) of 1,198 deaths, 128 were Americans Caused American public opinion to turn against Germany
  26. 26. Zimmerman note 19 January, 1917: The Zimmerman Note to the German Minister to Mexico  Berlin, January 19, 1917  On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.  If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement....  You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan.  Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.  Zimmerman (Secretary of State)
  27. 27.  Election of 1916 Woodrow Wilson won close election for 2nd term under slogan of “He Kept Us Out of War”  After election, Wilson met with warring countries in trying to end war
  28. 28.  Wilson called for “a peace without victory……a peace between equals”  Warring countries response was HA HA YEA RIGHT!
  29. 29.  Germans ignored Wilson’s call for peace & announced that they would now sink all ships (neutral or hostile) off Britain  Violation of Sussex Pledge
  30. 30.  This action gave Wilson no choice but to declare war but held out until Germany committed an overt act against the US Zimmerman Note was final act
  31. 31.  Russia’s move from dictator to a democracy helped to support our entry into war Could now claim this was a war of democracies vs brutal dictatorships
  32. 32.  Wilson declared war on Central Powers on April 2, 1917 in order to make the world “safe for democracy”
  33. 33. Section 2 America tips the balance of power
  34. 34. US in the War  The US declared war on Germany and the Central Powers in April of 1917  Bolshevik Revolution caused Russia to leave the war  The Bolshevik revolution was a peasant rebellion.
  35. 35. Angry Peasants
  36. 36. America at War  American Mobilization U.S. not prepared for war ○Only 200,000 men in service
  37. 37. Selective Service Act passed in May 1917 ○Required men to register with government in order to be randomly selected into military
  38. 38. Propaganda
  39. 39.  Mass production Needed materials to fight & to be transported to Europe Needed to Expand our fleet because of U-Boats ○Took four steps to do this
  40. 40.  Exempted shipyard workers from the Draft  Chamber of Commerce glorified ship building / special privileges to workers  Fabrication techniques  Took over commercial & private ships / converted them for war
  41. 41.  Used convoy system to get ships to & from Europe  New weapons never used in war before were machine guns, planes, tanks, gas, etc
  42. 42. Other Hazards  Body Lice  Rats  Polluted water that caused dysentery  Shell Shock ( emotional collapse)  Trench foot
  43. 43.  American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was led by General John J Pershing
  44. 44. Alvin York  Conscientious objector  Known for: “ the greatest thing accomplished by any private soldier of all the armies of Europe” Killed 25 Germans and captured 132 with the help of 6 other doughboys
  45. 45. End of the War  Both sides were fatigued & “shell shocked”  American troops (doughboys) provided freshness & enthusiasm
  46. 46.  Fresh troops proved to be the difference in the war  Turning point of war was 2nd Battle of the Marne (July- Aug 1918) After victory, Allies steadily marched toward Germany
  47. 47.  No truly decisive battle  Germans just got worn out  11-3-1918  Austria- Hungary surrendered
  48. 48.  On same day many German soldiers mutinied against government  People turned against Kaiser & established a German Republic  Republic signed armistice on 11-11-18
  49. 49.  WWI was bloodiest war ever !!!!!!  Final Statistics: 22 million dead (1/2 were civilians) 20 million wounded
  50. 50.  Belgium 45,550  British Empire 942,135  France 1,368,000  Greece 23,098  Italy 680,000  Japan 1,344  Montenegro 3,000  Germany 1,935,000  Ottoman Empire 725,000  Portugal 8,145  Romania 300,000  Russia 1,700,000  Serbia 45,000  United States 116,516  Austria-Hungary 1,200,000  Bulgaria 87,495
  51. 51. Peace  Wilson’s plan for world peace was called his 14 points
  52. 52. The points…. 1-5 were issues that he felt needed to be addressed to prevent another war 6-13 dealt with boundary changes 14th point called for creation of an international organization to address diplomatic crisis
  53. 53. Unity?  Big Four (US, Britain, France, Italy) worked on treaty by themselves
  54. 54.  Central Powers were left out of treaty process  Big Four wanted a treaty that got revenge on Central Powers, Wilson did not
  55. 55.  Wilson gave up on most of 14 points in return for other three nations support for a League of Nations  6-28-1918 Treaty of Versailles was signed which officially ended the war
  56. 56. Treaty of Versailles Created nine new nations Barred Germany from maintaining army Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France Germany had to pay reparations up to 33 billion dollars War-guilt clause forcing Germany to admit sole responsibility for war
  57. 57. Weakness of Treaty Humiliated Germany Reparations were too much to pay Took territory away from Russia & Germany Ignored colonies pleas for self rule
  58. 58. League of Nations Wilson spent months campaigning Congress to ratify entry into League
  59. 59. Congress never ratified entry & therefore the US never joined Why didn’t Congress want to join? ○Felt it threatened US policy of isolationism ○We would be bound by treaty to Europe and forced to get involved
  60. 60. Planting the seeds for part II  Treaty & US return to isolationists created more anger than it did peace  We put a patch on problems in Europe instead of fixing them  War created political instability & violence that sometimes lasted decades  New boundaries of countries upset many ethnic groups  This created an atmosphere that lead to the establishment of dictatorships (Russia, Spain, Germany, Italy)
  61. 61. Legacy of War in US  Accelerated social changes for African-Americans & women  Strengthened the power of the military & government  Established the US as a world power
  62. 62. ????????????? ??
  63. 63. The War at Home
  64. 64.  Entire economy focused on war effort  Shift from consumer goods to war supplies
  65. 65. War Industries Board  Congress gives Pres. Wilson power to fix prices, regulate certain war- related industries Use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency Standardize products to reduce waste
  66. 66. Rationing  Railroad/ fuel supplies monitored Gasless Sundays/ lightless nights ( Daylight- saving time)
  67. 67.  Wages : Food prices  Stockholders in large corp. saw $$$$$$  Union membership boomed to control working conditions Nation War Labor Board ○“Work or Fight”
  68. 68. Food Admin. Under Hoover  “Gospel of the clean plate” Meatless Sweetless Wheatless Porkless
  69. 69. Victory Gardens  Community gardens started to grow food – would mean more food available for the troops
  70. 70. Government Bonds  Encourage public to buy war bonds Helped finance war
  71. 71. Committee on Public Info  George Creel Speeches, posters, pamphlets in many languages Promoted Patriotism= created hatred towards certain ethnic groups ( hate crimes)
  72. 72. Anti-immigrant Hysteria  Attacks against certain Ethnic Groups
  73. 73.  People with German last names lost jobs  Mozart, Bach, Beethoven banned  Towns changed names, libraries removed books
  74. 74.  German measles: Liberty measles  Hamburger: Salisbury steak  Sauerkraut: liberty cabbage  Dachshunds : liberty pups
  75. 75. Espionage and Sedition Acts  Up to $10,000 & 20 years in jail for saying anything disloyal about the government or war effort
  76. 76. African Americans  support the war (Du Bois) but  Don’t support a racist government  Great Migration Escape racial discrimination in the South Northern job opportunities
  77. 77. Women in the war  Women moved into jobs that had been held exclusively by men  Plus maintained traditional roles at home
  78. 78.  1919 Congress passed the 19th Amendment Order of Ratification of the 19th Amendment KEY: Ratification on June 10, 1919 (yellow); ratification from June 16, 1919 to July 28, 1919 (chartreuse); ratification from August 2, 1919 to December 15, 1919 (aqua); ratification from January 6, 1920 to March 22, 1920 (gray-green); ratification on August 18, 1920 (gray).