World War 1 PowerPoint (US Perspective)


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World War 1 PowerPoint (US Perspective)

  1. 1. World War 1 1914-1918
  2. 2. Causes of World War 1 • 1. Nationalism= a devotion to the interests and culture of one nation • Many feared Germany’s growing power in Europe • Many nations longed to be independent • Ethnic groups looked to larger nations for protection – Ex: Russia was the protector of Europe’s Slavic peoples. Serbia was an independent nation but millions of ethnic Serbs were under rule of Austria-Hungary • Result: Russia and Austria-Hungary were rivals over influence in Serbia
  3. 3. 2. Imperialism • Imperialism= large empires extending their economic, military or political power over others • As Germany industrialized, it competed with France and Britain in the contest for colonies (to get raw materials and find market for their goods)
  4. 4. 3. Militarism • Militarism= development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy • Each nation wanted a stronger armed forced than those of any potential enemy – In Europe, Germany, had the strongest military – Britain had the strongest navy in the world (island nation) • Naval Race: Germany wanted to be as strong as British with their navy. France, Italy, Japan and the U.S. quickly joined the naval arm race
  5. 5. 4. Alliance System • Alliance System= Nations joining together to form a pact to protect and defend each other • Triple Entente (Allies)= France, Britain and Russia • Triple Alliance= Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy (aka Central Powers)
  6. 6. The SPARK!!! • Where: Balkan Peninsula, aka “powder keg of Europe” • Why there? • Russia wanted a route to Mediterranean Sea • Germany wanted a link to the Ottoman Empire • Austria-Hungary was angry at Serbia stepping over them and trying to rule Bosnia (which A-H had taken over) Powder Keg was ready to EXPLODE!
  7. 7. The Assassination that Led to a War • 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, and his wife were shot while visiting Bosnia (Remember: Austria had power over Bosnia, but Serbia was stepping on their toes) • Who killed him? Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist • Austria-Hungary declared war with Serbia, but it was expected to be a very short war
  8. 8. The Assassination that Started a War
  9. 9. Great War Begins • Alliance System brought many into the war • Germany, obligated by a treaty with Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia • Germany then declares war on Russia’s ally France • After Germany invaded Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary
  10. 10. How do alliances work?
  11. 11. • Why were so many European nations pulled into the conflict?
  12. 12. Trench Warfare • Between the trenches= “no man’s land” • 3 kinds of trenches – Front line trench – Support trench – Enemy trench – Dugouts were made as officers’ quarters and command posts
  13. 13. Turn to Page 376
  14. 14. Horrible Histories: Conditions in the Trenches
  15. 15. Downton Abbey: Crossing No Man’s Land
  16. 16. Horrible Histories: No Man’s Land
  17. 17. • Why do you think soldiers were rotated in the trenches (between the different trenches)?
  18. 18. Downton Abbey: Is it accurate???
  19. 19. Americans Question Neutrality • Many Americans say no reason to join a war that was 3,000 miles away • War was not a threat to American lives or property • This didn’t mean that Americans didn’t have their opinions as to who would win the war
  20. 20. American Feelings • Some (socialists) said the war was a capitalist and imperialist struggle between Germany and England to control markets and colonies • Pacifists believed the ward was evil and that the U.S. needed to set an example of peace • Many U.S. citizens followed the war because they had ties to the nations from which they emigrated • Many Americans sympathized with the British (common ancestry and language)
  21. 21. American Feelings • America was tied more with the Allies economically than the Central Powers • Allies ordered many war supplies from Americans. • U.S. shipped millions of dollars of war supplies to the Allies, but the requests kept coming • By 1915, the U.S. had a labor shortage
  22. 22. • Why did the United States begin to favor Britain and France?
  23. 23. The War Hits Home • Many Americans favored the Allies, but that did not mean they wanted to join and fight with them • America mobilized against the Central Powers because: – 1. ensure Allied repayment of debts to the United States – 2. Prevent the Germans from threatening U.S. shipping
  24. 24. British Blockade • British blocked the German coasts from receiving weapons and other military supplies from getting through (eventually included blocking food too) • Results: • American ships going to Germany didn’t get there • Without food and fertilizers going to Germany, Germany experienced a famine (750,000 starved to death) • Americans were angry that the British were threatening freedom of the seas and not allowing their ships to reach German ports
  25. 25. German U-Boat Response • German submarines (U-Boats, from the German word Unterseeboot) would counter blockade and sink any British or Allied ships
  26. 26. Lusitania • Worst disaster was the sinking of the British liner, the Lusitania. – 1,198 people died, 128 were Americans – Americans (Wilson) ruled out military response, Germany did not keep promises to stop sinking ships
  27. 27. • How did the German U-boat campaign affect U.S. public opinion?
  28. 28. 1916 Election • Woodrow Wilson won against Charles Hughes with the slogan, “He Kept Us Out of War!”
  29. 29. Wilson • Wilson tried to mediate between the warring alliances, but his attempts failed • Wilson called for a “league of peace,” but Germany ignored it • Germany said they would continue to sink all ships in British waters- hostile or neutral- on sight • Wilson said he would wait for an overt attack before declaring war
  30. 30. Zimmermann Note • = a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico was intercepted by British agents • Germany promised to Mexico that if the U.S. broke out into the war that Germany would help them recover “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”
  31. 31. • Why did the Zimmermann note alarm the U.S. government?
  32. 32. America Acts • When did America Enter? 1917 • Hopes of neutrality were over “Property can be paid for; the lives of peaceful and innocent people cannot be. The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind…We are glad…to fight…for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples…The world must be made safe for democracy…We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities…It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war…But the right is more precious than peace.” -Woodrow Wilson, 1917
  33. 33. Section 2: American Power Tips the Balance
  34. 34. America Mobilizes • The United States was not prepared for war • Only 200,000 men were enlisted when war was declared
  35. 35. Raising An Army • Selective Service Act= 1917, required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service • By 1918, 24 million had registered • Out of 24 million, 3 million were called up • 2 million sent over, ¾ of those saw combat
  36. 36. Many Enlist • 400,000 African Americans served • Served in segregated units and were excluded from the navy and marines
  37. 37. Training • 8 month training ( ½ in America, ½ in Europe) • 17 hours a day on: target practice, bayonet drill, kitchen duty, and cleaning up the grounds • Real weapons were in short supply- used fake weapons, rocks instead of hand grenades, wooden poles instead of rifles
  38. 38. WW1 Solider Backpack
  39. 39. Women • Not allowed to enlist • Army Crops of Nurses (but denied rank, pay and benefits) • Served as nurses, secretaries and telephone operators
  40. 40. Mass Production • Transporting men, food and equipment was hard with German U-boats • 4 steps: – 1. shipyard workers were exempt from draft – 2. showed appreciation for shipyard workers (flags flown over home) – 3. parts were built elsewhere and then assembled at the yard – 4. government took over shipyards and converted them for war use
  41. 41. America Turns the Tide • With U-boat problem, US military leaders convinced British to try the convey system • = heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across Atlantic • US plants bombs in the ocean in path of U-boats
  42. 42. Fighting in Europe • Allies were tired from war • Americans gave: fresh blood, freshness, enthusiasm, determination to hit Germans hard
  43. 43. Fighting “Over There” • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) -nicknamed doughboys (possibly because of their white belts which they cleaned with pipe clay, or “dough”)
  44. 44. New Weapons • First large scale use of weapons – Machine gun – Tanks – Airplane (first used for scouting, then for early air combats, by the end of the war planes could carry heavy bombs loads) – Poison gas & gas masks – Observation balloons
  45. 45. Poison Gas Clip
  46. 46. War Introduces New Hazards • Men surrounded by filth, lice, rats and polluted water that caused dysentery (disease of intestines) • Inhaled poison gas and smelled decaying bodies • Lack of sleep • “Shell Shock” • Trench Mouth (infection of gums and throat)
  47. 47. Shell Shock Clips
  48. 48. War Introduces New Hazards (cont.) • Trench foot- caused by standing in wet trenches for long periods of time – Toes turn red or blue – Then, they become numb – Start to rot – Solution: Amputate the toes and sometimes the entire foot
  49. 49. American Troops Go on the Offensive • Russia pulled out of war in 1917, and Germans now concentrated on the western front • Americans arrived just in time to help French when Germans were invading • Americans began mounting offensive attacks
  50. 50. American War Hero • Alvin York – Tennessee blacksmith and mountaineer – Sought exemption as “conscientious objector”- a person who opposes warfare on moral grounds – Decided later to fight if the war was for just cause – Killed 25 Germans, captured 132 prisoners – Became a celebrity when he came home
  51. 51. Alvin York Clip
  52. 52. The Collapse of Germany • November of 1918, Austria- Hungary surrendered to the Allies • Groups of Germans revolted against German government, exhausting Germans from continuing to fight • In the 11th hour, on the 11th day, in the 11th month of 1918, Germany signed a truce (armistice) that ended the war
  53. 53. Final Toll • WW1 was the bloodiest war up to that time • Death total: 22 million (more than ½ were civilians) • Wounded: 20 million • Became Refugees: 10 million • Cost of War: $338 Million
  54. 54. WW1 Death (By alliance)
  55. 55. • Allies Death Toll
  56. 56. Central Powers Death Total
  57. 57. U.S. Losses • Deaths to Combat: 48,000 • Deaths to Disease: 62,000 • Wounded: 200,000
  58. 58. Activity: Patriotic Song • Listen to the song and underline 5 parts you like. • Write on the worksheet the reason why you believe this song was motivating to the soldiers in WW1. (3-4 sentences)
  59. 59. Section 3: The War at Home
  60. 60. Congress Gives Power to Wilson • Entire economy switch from commercial to warfare products • Congress gave power to Wilson to: – directly control much of economy, including fixing prices and to regulate certain war-related industries
  61. 61. President Wilson in 1 Minute
  62. 62. When a leader takes over…
  63. 63. War Industries Board • WIB • Leader: Bernard M. Baruch • What it did? – Encouraged companies to use mass- production technique to increase efficiency – Set production quotas and allocated materials • Railroad Administration controlled railroads • Fuel Administration controlled coal, gas, and heating oil • Daylight-saving time- first proposed by Benjamin Franklin, but introduced by Fuel Adm.
  64. 64. War Economy • Wages increased • Rising food prices and housing costs • National War Labor Board: settle disputes between management and labor – Motto for obeying Board: “Work or Fight”
  65. 65. The US During WW1
  66. 66. Food Administration • = help produce and conserve food • Instead of rationing food, people had… – “meatless” once a week – “sweetless” once a week – “wheatless” twice a week – “porkless” once a week – Homeowners planted “victory gardens” – School children planted after school hours
  67. 67. Modern Day Rationing: 2012
  68. 68. Selling the War • After fixing the economy, there were 2 major tasks: – 1. Raising $$$ for the war – 2. Convincing the public to support the war
  69. 69. 1. War Financing • 1/3 of all money raised came from taxes (income, tobacco, liquor, and luxury goods) • Total Spent by U.S. 35.5 billion on war effort
  70. 70. 2. Committee on Public Information • =nation’s first propaganda agency • Biased communication designed to influence people’s opinions • Leader (George Creel) was a muckracker • Spread new by: newspapers, pamphlets, speakers • Other became outraged by this? Who do you think this is? While some were claiming patriotism, it angered others who were seeking civil liberties of other ethnic groups and opponents of the war
  71. 71. Attacks of Civil Liberties Increase • Anti-Immigrant Hysteria • Attacks on recent immigrants, especially those from Germany and Austria-Hungary – Many with German names lost their jobs – Orchestras refused to play the music of Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms – Towns with German titles changed name – Schools stop teaching German – German books removed from libraries – Physically attacked or lynched – Changed name of food (ie: Hamburger “liberty sandwich,” sauerkraut “liberty cabbage”)
  72. 72. Espionage and Sedition Acts • =person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal about government • These laws violated the First Amendment
  73. 73. Espionage & Sedition Acts
  74. 74. War Encourages Social Change • African Americans and the War • Black opinion was split about the war – Do Not Support: Not our war, why should we? – Support: Our Support with help strengthen calls for racial justice
  75. 75. Great Migration • =large scale movement of hundreds of thousands of Southern blacks to cities in the North • Started during Jim Crow laws but now increased dramatically • Where? Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia • Why Move North? – Escape racial discrimination – Jobs! – There was still discrimination in the North, and this migration intensified racial tensions.
  76. 76. Women at War • Women moved into jobs previously only held by men • Ie: railroad workers, cooks, dockworkers, and bricklayers • Didn’t help with equal wages between men and women, but it did help bolster public support for women suffrage (19th Amendment in 1920)
  77. 77. Flu Epidemic • International flu epidemic hits! (1918) • Affected ¼ of population of U.S. • Possibly spread by the soldiers to others they were fighting • Total Americans killed: 500,000 • Total (World) Killed: 30 Million
  78. 78. 1918 Flu
  79. 79. “War to End all Wars” • 4 years • Flu Epidemic • Wilson traveled to Europe to work out terms of peace
  80. 80. Section 4: Wilson Fights for Peace
  81. 81. Wilson’s Plan • 14 Points • First 5: deal with issues to prevent another war (no secret treaties, freedom of seas, free trade among nations, arms reduced…) • Next 8: dealt with boundary changes (ethnic groups were to receive their own nation-state or decide who they would belong to) • 14th Point: creation of international organization to address diplomatic crisis (League of Nations)
  82. 82. Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan • French wanted to prevent further invasions of Germany • British wanted to “make Germany pay” • Italy wanted to control of the Austria-held territory • “Big Four”: leaders from all these countries • Wilson settled for most of his points to get his League of Nations
  83. 83. Treaty of Versailles • Big Four gathered to sign peace treaty (1919) • Results: – 9 new nations formed: Poland, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Latvia, Lithuania & Estonia – Germany could no longer have an army – Germany had to pay reparations (war damages)…about 33 billion to Allies
  84. 84. Treaty’s Weaknesses • 1. Couldn’t provide lasting peace for Europe • 2. Germany was humiliated – Treaty included a “War-Guilt Clause” which forced Germany to admit full responsibility for starting WW1 – Germany was stripped of its colonies and in no way could pay back reparations without them • 3. Russians left out – Fought with allies, lost more territory then Germany, left out of Conference
  85. 85. Opposition to the Treaty • Many Americans thought the Treaty was too harsh • Many said we were just switching one imperialistic nation for another • Many didn’t like the new borders
  86. 86. Debate Over the League of Nations • Many thought it threatened the U.S. foreign policy of isolationism • Many did not want to enter, and in the end, and with Wilson’s failing health, the U.S. did not enter the League of Nations, but maintained an unofficial observer at League meetings
  87. 87. President Wilson’s Accomplishments
  88. 88. Legacy of War • In US: – War strengthened the US military – Social changes had occurred (African Americans and women) – Discrimination (against ethnic groups) • In Europe: – political and social changes – devastated by war – rebuilding
  89. 89. WW1 Recap: Beginning, Middle, End