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The Great War


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Mr. Foster's US History 2 Presentation on World War I

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The Great War

  1. 1. World War I U.S. History 2 College Prep ELL American Studies 2 Mr. Ryan L. Foster Red Bank Regional H.S. Created: 11/1/2007 Revised:
  2. 2. The Goals… <ul><li>Identify the key causes leading to World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of each cause as it relates to the War </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the countries of the Central Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the countries of the Allied Powers </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE KEY CAUSES <ul><li>Events that SHOOK the world… </li></ul>
  4. 4. There are at least 5… <ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each country acts in own interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic minorities fight for independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations fight for remaining uncolonized land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Militarism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build up of arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military gains more gov’t power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex and fragile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assassination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of Archduke Francis Ferdinand ultimately leads to war. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Sequence of Events (1914) <ul><li>June 28: Archduke Ferdinand Assassinated at Sarajevo </li></ul><ul><li>July 28: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>July 30: Russia begins mobilization of military </li></ul><ul><li>August 1: Germany declares war on Russia </li></ul><ul><li>August 3: Germany declares war on France </li></ul><ul><li>August 4: Britain declares war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>August 6: Russia & Austria-Hungary at war </li></ul><ul><li>August 12: Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary </li></ul>
  6. 6. U.S. PARTICIPATION <ul><li>The Groups Who Opposed… </li></ul>
  7. 7. Naturalized Citizens <ul><li>This group opposed U.S. involvement primarily because of past conflicts in Europe, especially involving Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Many newly arrived immigrants were also concerned with the affairs and welfare of their homelands. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Socialists <ul><li>They believed that this war was a battle between nations who were imperial capitalists. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pacifists (The Peace Movement) <ul><li>They believed that citizens would end up paying more for the war through higher income taxes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Parents <ul><li>The most critical objection for parents involves the safety and welfare of their children. </li></ul>
  11. 11. U.S. PARTICIPATION <ul><li>The Nations Who Encouraged… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Great Britain <ul><li>Cut the transatlantic cable connecting German and United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects news and media reports reaching the United States </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Russia <ul><li>The Russian Revolution of 1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Czar Nicholas II is thrown out of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes a republican government </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Germany <ul><li>Submarine Warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated sinking of Allied and American ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passenger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merchant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. TRENCH WARFARE <ul><li>War Techniques and Technologies </li></ul>
  16. 16. How Does it Take Place?
  17. 17. From the Trenches… <ul><li>To get a “cushy” one is all the old </li></ul><ul><li>hands think about. A bloke in the </li></ul><ul><li>Camerons wanted a “cushy” bad! </li></ul><ul><li>Fed up and far from home he was. </li></ul><ul><li>He puts his two fingers over the </li></ul><ul><li>top and gets his trigger finger </li></ul><ul><li>taken off and two more besides. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m off to bony Scotland!” he says </li></ul><ul><li>laughing. But on the way to down </li></ul><ul><li>to the dressing station, he forgets </li></ul><ul><li>to stoop low where an old sniper is </li></ul><ul><li>working. He gets it through the </li></ul><ul><li>head. </li></ul><ul><li>~Robert Graves </li></ul>
  18. 18. From the Trenches… If you have never had trench foot described to you, I will explain. Your feet swell to two to three times their normal size and go completely dead. You can stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If you are lucky enough not to lose your feet and the swelling starts to go down, it is then that the most indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry and scream with pain and many have had to have their feet and legs amputated. I was one of the lucky ones, but one more day in that trench and it may have been too late. ~Harry Roberts
  19. 19. Where was it Used? <ul><li>The Western Front </li></ul><ul><li>The Eastern Front </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Western Front <ul><li>Key Battles </li></ul><ul><li>Marne- Sept. 1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allies stop German advance on Paris </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ypres- May 1915 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans use chemical weapons for the 1 st time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verdun- Feb. thru July 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French hold the line in longest battle of war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Somme- July thru Nov. 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disastrous British offensive </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Eastern Front <ul><li>Key Battles </li></ul><ul><li>Tannenberg- August 1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian push into Eastern Prussia (Austria-Hungary) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gorlice-Turnow Offensive- May 1915 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn around for Germany; ultimately leads to Russian retreat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gallipoli- Apr. 1915-Jan. 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allies are defeated while trying to create supply route to Russia </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. U.S. ENTRY INTO THE WAR <ul><li>April 1917 </li></ul>
  23. 23. U.S. Entry into WW I <ul><li>German Provocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began sinking all British ships on sight (U-Boats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Zimmermann Note </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Russian Revolution removes America’s last obstacle from entering the war </li></ul><ul><li>April 1917- Congress passes President Wilson’s War Resolution </li></ul>
  24. 24. Mobilization Efforts <ul><li>May 1917- Congress passes the Selective Service Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>November 1918: 24 million men registered for draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lottery chose 3 million to serve in the war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volunteers and National Guardsmen made up the American Expeditionary Force. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Cultural Connection <ul><li>African-Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400,000 served during the war in segregated units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The majority served fighting for the French </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many were assigned non-combative duties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Puerto Ricans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>235,000 registered for the draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18,000 were called into active duty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mexican-Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many were seen as suspicious because of an alleged connection to Germany </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Funding the War Effort <ul><li>Liberty Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>War Industries Board </li></ul><ul><li>Price controls and food rationing </li></ul>
  27. 27. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>The Great War Comes to a Close… </li></ul>
  28. 28. Europe at the End of WW I
  29. 29. Newly Formed Nations
  30. 30. German Losses
  31. 31. Treaty Provisions <ul><li>Signed in March 1919 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany threatened w/ French invasion if they did not sign agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nine new nations established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including Poland and Yugoslavia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany is barred from maintaining its own army </li></ul><ul><li>Germans required to pay reparations ($33 billion worth) to Allied nations </li></ul>
  32. 32. Major Flaws <ul><li>Germany was humiliated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to take the blame for starting WW I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russia was left out of treaty negotiations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost more territory than Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treaty ignored claims of colonized people for self-determination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of Southeast Asia saw fights for same political rights as the Western world </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. FINAL SUMMARY <ul><li>The Big Picture… </li></ul>
  34. 34. World War I <ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>European powers compete for colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism increases in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Arms race develops </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile alliances form </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Allies defeat Central Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Old empires break up </li></ul><ul><li>Europe is economically devastated </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations is formed </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. becomes economic giant </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty’s harsh treatment of Germany helps lead to WW II </li></ul>
  35. 35. Human and Financial Costs of WW I <ul><li>Casualties </li></ul><ul><li>Russia- 9.3 million </li></ul><ul><li>Germany- 7.21 million </li></ul><ul><li>France- 6.22 million </li></ul><ul><li>Austria- 4.65 million </li></ul><ul><li>Britain- 3.43 million </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey- 2.2 million </li></ul><ul><li>Italy- 2.19 million </li></ul><ul><li>United States- 325,326 </li></ul><ul><li>Financial and Economic Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Germany- $58.07 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Britain- $51.98 billion </li></ul><ul><li>France- $49.88 billion </li></ul><ul><li>United States- $32.32 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Austria- $23.71 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Russia- $21.60 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Italy- $18.14 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium- $10.20 billion </li></ul>