World War I Terms


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World War I Terms

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World War I Terms

  1. 1. World War I
  2. 2. Tension in Imperial Europe  During Imperial Age, European nations sought power through acquisition of colonies  Countries competed with each other for relative power  They began to get paranoid about their neighbors—If a war broke out, would they be strong enough to survive?  Nations began to look for ways to ensure their security
  3. 3. Militarism  Policy of aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war
  4. 4. Alliances  Secret treaties or informal understandings between nations that promised they would side together in the event of war
  5. 5. Gavrilo Princip  Bosnian-Serb terrorist and nationalist who assassinated Franz Ferdinand
  6. 6. Archduke Franz Ferdinand  Heir to the Austria- Hungarian throne. His assassination was the spark that ignited the war.
  7. 7. Brinksmanship  A strategy where a country seeks an advantage by creating the impression that they are willing and able to push a situation to the point of war in order to get their demands
  8. 8. Mobilization  The readying of troops for war
  9. 9. Ultimatum  A statement, especially in diplomatic negotiations, that expresses or implies the threat of serious penalties if the terms are not accepted
  10. 10. Road to war
  11. 11. Kaiser Wilhelm II  German leader during World War I. He declared war on Russia and invaded France.
  12. 12. Allied Forces  The group of nations that opposed the Central Powers; originally consisting of Great Britain, France and Russia and later joined by the U.S., Italy and others
  13. 13. Central Powers  The group of nations--led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire--that opposed the Allied Forces
  14. 14. Military Alliances before the war
  15. 15. Schlieffen Plan  German plan of attack to avoid a 2- front war: first quickly take out France, then focus troops on Russia
  16. 16. “Rape of Belgium”  German war crimes committed during the march through neutral Belgium on the way to Paris
  17. 17. Race for the Sea  Early in the war when both sides tried to outflank each other; resulted in a front line of trenches over 200 miles long
  18. 18. Trench warfare  A form of warfare where opponents occupy static (non-moving) fighting lines, especially fortified trenches in the ground.
  19. 19. No Man’s Land  Area between the two opposing lines of trenches
  20. 20. Barbed wire  Formed a barrier to attacking soldiers attempting to cross no man's land
  21. 21. Mustard gas  First used by Germans in 1917; one of several poison gases used during the war
  22. 22. Machine Guns
  23. 23. Tanks
  24. 24. Aircraft
  25. 25. Manfred von Richthofen  a.k.a. The "Red Baron," a German fighter pilot who shot down 80 enemy planes and commanded the Flying Circus
  26. 26. Stalemate  A situation in which neither side can gain the advantage
  27. 27. Shell shock  Battle fatigue; a range of behaviors brought on by exposure to combat and acute psychological stress The “Thousand- yard stare” --
  28. 28. Total war  The organization of entire societies for war in a social, economic, and even spiritual sense.
  29. 29. War of attrition  A war that is won by slowly wearing down the enemy through prolonged casualties and loss of resources
  30. 30. Woodrow Wilson  U.S. President during World War I
  31. 31. Isolationism  Foreign policy of neutrality and non- involvement  Wilson made a declaration of neutrality just days into the war
  32. 32. Blockade  An effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force  England used their powerful navy to cut off Germany  Some estimate 750,000 Germans died of starvation
  33. 33. U.S. Exports •After war began, U.S. traded even more with Allies •U.S. economy boomed from supplying Allies with war materials and extending credit
  34. 34. U-boat  German submarine (Unterseeboot)  Germany began targeting merchant ships
  35. 35. Lusitania  British passenger ship sunk off coast of Ireland by German submarine; 128 Americans dead, led to U.S. outrage
  36. 36. American Reaction  Wilson issues warning to Germany  He affirms Britain’s right to blockade Germany but demands Germany stop attacks on ships  Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest of U.S. non-neutrality
  37. 37. Germany Resumes Attacks  At breaking point from blockade  Germany makes calculated tactical decision  Declares they will attack without warning after all  Figure they can win war with unrestricted submarine warfare before the U.S. could enter
  38. 38. Zimmerman Telegram  Telegram intercepted by British intelligence  German ambassador asks Mexico to enter the war on the German side  In return Germany promises to help them recover territory they lost in the Mexican War  Last straw for Wilson
  39. 39. Autocrat  A ruler with unlimited power  Russian Revolution ends their autocracy  Makes it easier for U.S. to justify war “to make the world safe for democracy”  Russia out of war, leaving France and Britain vulnerable  Wilson declares war on April 6, 1917
  40. 40. American Expeditionary Force  American forces sent to Europe
  41. 41. Harlem Hellfighters  369th (Colored) Infantry Regiment integrated into the French Army  Received France's highest combat medal
  42. 42. Selective Service Act of 1917  Act that authorized the draft  Draft began almost immediately
  43. 43. Espionage Act of 1917  Made it illegal to oppose the draft
  44. 44. Sedition  Speech or actions meant to incite rebellion against a government
  45. 45. Sedition Act of 1918  Made it illegal to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or to discuss anything "disloyal" to the U.S. government
  46. 46. Charles Schenck  Anti-war activist who was arrested for distributing pamphlets urging men to avoid the draft.
  47. 47. Schenck v. United States  Established restrictions of freedom of speech in cases of "clear and present danger" Oliver Wendell Holmes
  48. 48. Propaganda  Committee on Public Information aimed to unite public opinion  Published over 75 million pieces of printed material  Encouraged journalists to use “self- censorship”
  49. 49. "Four Minute Men"  75,000 volunteers recruited by the Committee on Public Information  Gave 4-minute speeches in support of the war effort  Helped turn public opinion
  50. 50. Shaping the economy for war  War Industries Board coordinated production of military supplies  National War Labor Board pressured industries to grant workers concessions in return for not striking  Other “War Boards” for railroads, fuel, food, etc.
  51. 51. Liberty bonds  Bonds sold to promote the war effort; heavily-promoted by the government
  52. 52. Help from the Homefront  $23 billion by 1920  Victory gardens  Meatless Tuesdays and Wheatless Wednesdays  Production of alcohol restricted to conserve grain
  53. 53. Women on the Homefront  Shortage of male labor led to women being hired to do work traditionally done by men
  54. 54. Workers were especially needed to produce war supplies
  55. 55. Great Migration  Massive numbers of African- Americans also migrated North for jobs previously closed to them  500,000 by 1920
  56. 56. Anti-German Sentiment  German names changed  “Liberty sandwich,” “Liberty cabbage”  Hot dog
  57. 57. Armistice  Cease-fire  November 11, 1918
  58. 58. Fourteen Points  President Woodrow Wilson drafted 14-point plan for peace in 1918  First presented to joint session of Congress before war to justify entry in moral terms  Later presented at Versailles peace conference after the war, but failed to win approval of all 14 points into final treaty  Wilson advocated “Peace without victory”
  59. 59. Main Points  No secret alliances  Freedom of the seas  Removal of trade barriers (tariffs, etc.)  Reduce military to just what’s necessary to protect your own country  Let go of some colonies  Create a League of Nations
  60. 60. Treaty of Versailles  Treaty that ended the war  June 28, 1919
  61. 61. Big Four  Countries at the table: *U.S. *Italy *France *Great Britain  Germany and Russia excluded
  62. 62. Reparations  Payments from an enemy for economic costs of war
  63. 63. Terms of the Treaty  Germany humiliated: --Charged with war crimes --Forced to accept guilt for the war --Must drastically reduce military --Allow France to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years --Give up territory --Pay reparations  France wanted revenge and security against any future German threat
  64. 64. League of Nations  International body proposed by Woodrow Wilson to ensure peace and stability after the war through cooperation and accountability
  65. 65. Ratification  Congressional approval of a bill  Wilson tours country making speeches
  66. 66. Failure to Ratify  Congress fails to ratify  League is weak without U.S.  Wilson collapses from stroke
  67. 67. Irreconcilables  Would not accept U.S. membership in the League of Nations, no matter what
  68. 68. Reservationists  Would accept the League of Nations with reservations Henry Cabot Lodge
  69. 69. Dulce Et Decorum Est  Poem written by British poet and solider Wilfred Owen, famous for its horrific imagery of war  Owen died in battle shortly before the armistice