WORLD WAR I History
Group Members <ul><li>Julieta Herrería  [Soldiers’ experience and Causes research/graphics- Co-coordinator] </li></ul><ul>...
Causes <ul><li>Aspects that led to war: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism ...
Nationalism <ul><li>It can be defined as the pride a person has to his/her country.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism  has be...
Imperialism (Territories Rivalries) <ul><li>Important movements in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan Slavic Movement </li><...
Military Alliances <ul><li>Definition    Agreement  between countries to defend each other from war attacks. </li></ul><u...
Militarism and WWI <ul><li>“ War was a consequence of their desire for  military   power  and disdain for  democracy ”. </...
Franz Ferdinand and Assassination <ul><li>Biography: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archduke of Austria-Hungary  </li></ul></ul><ul...
Division in Europe
The Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Created by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Von Schlieffen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><u...
Most Important Battles <ul><li>Battle of the Somme  </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Vimy Ridge  </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Ca...
Battle of Somme (Stalemate) <ul><li>Date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1st, 1916 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place:  </li></ul><u...
Battle of Cambrai (Stalemate) <ul><li>Date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 November - 3 December 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pla...
2 nd  Battle of Marne (Allied Powers) <ul><li>Date </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Reims   July 15- August 5 1918 </li></...
Battle of Verdun (Stalemate) <ul><li>Date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 21 February to 18 December 1916  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Important Characters <ul><li>Franz Ferdinand </li></ul><ul><li>Von Moltke </li></ul><ul><li>Von Schlieffen </li></ul><ul><...
Important Characters <ul><li>Archduke Franz Ferdinand:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archduke of Austria  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Important Characters <ul><li>  Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replayed Alfred Von Schlieffe...
Important Characters <ul><li>Alfred Graf Von Schlieffen:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the Schlieffen Plan.  </li></ul></...
Important Characters <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the United States.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Important Characters <ul><li>Jeannette Rankin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the first woman elected to the United States Hous...
Important Characters <ul><li>Gavrilo Princip: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassinated Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdin...
Important Characters <ul><li>John Joseph &quot;Black Jack&quot; Pershing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was an officer in the Unit...
Weapons Used <ul><li>Rifle </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Gun </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Zeppelin </li></ul><ul><l...
Rifle and Machine Gun <ul><li>Machine gun: </li></ul><ul><li>Needed 4-6 men to work them and had to be on a flat surface. ...
Gas and Zeppelin <ul><li>Zeppelin </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as  blimp </li></ul><ul><li>Airship used to carry machine g...
Tank, planes and torpedoes <ul><li>Torpedoes: </li></ul><ul><li>Were used by  submarines .   </li></ul><ul><li>Used to blo...
US Intervention in WWI <ul><li>American Neutrality </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for War </li></ul><ul><li>Relations Broken ...
American Neutrality <ul><li>At first, President Wilson declared US neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>With many attacks by Germans...
Preparing for the Great War <ul><li>Preparedness program: </li></ul><ul><li>National Defense Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obj...
Relations Broken (Causes) War Declared <ul><li>Congress declares war: </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate declared war on April 4...
Mobilizing for War (Troops) <ul><li>Allies needed the most was “fresh” troops. Few Americans volunteered to enlist. </li><...
Mobilizing for War (Food & Fuel) Conserving  Food and Fuel Food Administration Fuel Administration Proposed by Herbert Hoo...
Mobilizing for War (Money & Funds) <ul><li>To gain money for the War, Wilson created: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonds </li></u...
The End of the Great War  (Allied Victory) <ul><li>Armistice terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuate France, Luxembourg, Bel...
The End of the Great War <ul><li>Mandate System </li></ul><ul><li>Established in the treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><l...
World War One Casualties <ul><li>Over 40 million casualties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 million deaths and 21 million wounde...
 
-Bibliography <ul><li>www.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>History Classes </li></ul><ul><li>American Nation 20 th  Century...
Thank You “… War doesn't determine who is right, it determines who is left.” - Anonymous
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WWI

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World War One

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WWI

  1. 1. WORLD WAR I History
  2. 2. Group Members <ul><li>Julieta Herrería [Soldiers’ experience and Causes research/graphics- Co-coordinator] </li></ul><ul><li>Lynn Quirola [Important Characters research] </li></ul><ul><li>Fiorella Rhor [Battles research] </li></ul><ul><li>Daniela Arosemena [US Intervention in War research] </li></ul><ul><li>Fernando Coello [Group Coordinator/ Edition/ End of the war and Weapons research] </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes <ul><li>Aspects that led to war: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military Alliances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Militarism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The assassination of Franz Ferdinand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Nationalism <ul><li>It can be defined as the pride a person has to his/her country. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism has become: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dominant form of societal organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the main reason of many conflicts worldwide. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Serbia  The Anarchist Organization ‘Unification or Death’ alleged to be Nationalist. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Imperialism (Territories Rivalries) <ul><li>Important movements in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan Slavic Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan German Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The competition for expanding markets caused  Global conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Background  Banking interests and capitalist-imperialist powers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Military Alliances <ul><li>Definition  Agreement between countries to defend each other from war attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1910s two important alliances were created. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Entente (Great Britain, France and Russia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Militarism and WWI <ul><li>“ War was a consequence of their desire for military power and disdain for democracy ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson stated that the Great War relied over Militarism . </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocrats and military elites had too much power in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Franz Ferdinand and Assassination <ul><li>Biography: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archduke of Austria-Hungary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>December 18, 1863 – June 28, 1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was killed by Gavrilo Princip (Serbian anarchist) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated the declaration of war. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Conflict: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries allied with Austria-Hungary (the Central Powers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries allied with Serbia (the Entente Powers). </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Division in Europe
  10. 10. The Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Created by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Von Schlieffen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Germany the most powerful nation in Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To attack France (by crossing Belgium). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It failed because of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Battle of Marne. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Most Important Battles <ul><li>Battle of the Somme </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Vimy Ridge </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Cambrai </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Marne </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Ypres </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Verdun </li></ul>
  12. 12. Battle of Somme (Stalemate) <ul><li>Date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1st, 1916 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4okm along the River Somme . </li></ul></ul>Battle of Vimy Ridge (Canada/Allies) <ul><li>Date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On April 9, 1917, the Allied attacked the Germans. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Battle of Cambrai (Stalemate) <ul><li>Date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 November - 3 December 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambrai, French town in the Nord department. </li></ul></ul>1 st Battle of Marne (France/Britain) <ul><li>Date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 September- 12 September 1914. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along the Marne River (France) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 2 nd Battle of Marne (Allied Powers) <ul><li>Date </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Reims  July 15- August 5 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near the Marne River. </li></ul></ul>Battle of Ypres (Canada/Belgium) <ul><li>Place: Western Front (Russia) </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 22 April- 25 May 1915 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Battle of Verdun (Stalemate) <ul><li>Date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 21 February to 18 December 1916 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around the city of Verdun-sur-Meuse in northeast France. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the longest battles in history (10 months). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Important Characters <ul><li>Franz Ferdinand </li></ul><ul><li>Von Moltke </li></ul><ul><li>Von Schlieffen </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Jeannette Rankin </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm II </li></ul><ul><li>Gavrilo Princip </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas II </li></ul><ul><li>Pershing </li></ul>
  17. 17. Important Characters <ul><li>Archduke Franz Ferdinand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archduke of Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His assassination in Sarajevo was the one that initiate the declaration of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was killed by Gavrilo Princip- He killed his wife too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The assassination along with the arms race, nationalism and the alliance system all contributed to the beginning of World War I. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Important Characters <ul><li>  Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replayed Alfred Von Schlieffen plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proved to be indecisive during the invasion of France. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chief of staff of the Prussian army for thirty years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief of Germany troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed German offensive on the Marne in September 1914. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Important Characters <ul><li>Alfred Graf Von Schlieffen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the Schlieffen Plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was a German Chief. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He participated in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was involved in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred retired as Chief of General Staff of the German Army in 1906- But created the Schlieffen Plan in 1914. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Important Characters <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made the US Neutral at the WWI until 1917. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1918, promoted US to involve in the Great War. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was president of Princeton University. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He received the Nobel Peace Prize, because of his 14 points. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Important Characters <ul><li>Jeannette Rankin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First female member of Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Republican and a lifelong pacifist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She was the only member of Congress to vote against United States enter into World War II and one of fifty to vote against World War I. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She led resistance to the Vietnam War. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Important Characters <ul><li>Gavrilo Princip: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassinated Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was an Anarchist and member of the Organization Unification or Death, also called Black Hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader of Serbia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provoked the beginning of the War. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm II: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last King of Prussia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Died in Berlin on June 4 th , 1941 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He had a large involvement in WWI decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Important Characters <ul><li>John Joseph &quot;Black Jack&quot; Pershing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was an officer in the United States and Army Chief of Staff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was involved in previous: Indian Wars, Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also participated in World War I. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nicholas II: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor of Russia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King of Poland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Weapons Used <ul><li>Rifle </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Gun </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Zeppelin </li></ul><ul><li>Tank </li></ul><ul><li>Planes </li></ul><ul><li>Torpedoes </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rifle and Machine Gun <ul><li>Machine gun: </li></ul><ul><li>Needed 4-6 men to work them and had to be on a flat surface. </li></ul><ul><li>They had the fire-power of 100 guns. </li></ul>Rifle: The main weapon used by British soldiers in the trenches .
  26. 26. Gas and Zeppelin <ul><li>Zeppelin </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as blimp </li></ul><ul><li>Airship used to carry machine guns and bombs. </li></ul><ul><li>Too easy to shoot out of the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas: </li></ul><ul><li>First used by Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine gas caused a burning sensation in the throat and chest pains. </li></ul><ul><li>Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. It was colorless and takes 12 hours to take effect. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Tank, planes and torpedoes <ul><li>Torpedoes: </li></ul><ul><li>Were used by submarines . </li></ul><ul><li>Used to blow up ships carrying supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans sank the Lusitania on May 1st 1915. </li></ul><ul><li>Planes: </li></ul><ul><li>Were used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To deliver bombs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For spying work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later, became fighter aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Fights between two planes in the sky became known as 'dogfights' </li></ul><ul><li>Tanks: </li></ul><ul><li>First used at the Battle of the Somme. </li></ul><ul><li>The first tank was called 'Little Willie' and needed a crew of 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum speed was 3mph </li></ul><ul><li>It could not cross trenches </li></ul>
  28. 28. US Intervention in WWI <ul><li>American Neutrality </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for War </li></ul><ul><li>Relations Broken (Causes)  War Declared </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilizing for War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food & Fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money & Funds </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. American Neutrality <ul><li>At first, President Wilson declared US neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>With many attacks by Germans, US joined the WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans fought the war aside with the Allies in 1917. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Preparing for the Great War <ul><li>Preparedness program: </li></ul><ul><li>National Defense Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective: To increase the amount of soldiers from 90.000 to 175.000. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It authorized $313 millions to build up the navy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace without Victory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson gave a speech calling for peace without victory hoping to settle the war [It wasn’t successful]. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Relations Broken (Causes) War Declared <ul><li>Congress declares war: </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate declared war on April 4; the House, 2 days later. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeanette Rankin was a Congress member (pacifist and against war) </li></ul><ul><li>She cast the only vote against US entering to WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Relations Broken [Causes] : </li></ul><ul><li>The sinking of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Lusitania (1915) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Arabic (1915) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sussex (1916) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Secret Zimmerman’s note. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It proposed Mexico join Germany army, so they could recover lost territory in U.S. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Mobilizing for War (Troops) <ul><li>Allies needed the most was “fresh” troops. Few Americans volunteered to enlist. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Service Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All men from 21 to 30 years had to enlist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later, from 18 to 45 years (proposed by the Congress). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Africans, Mexicans and Native Americans faced discrimination. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opponents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pacifists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socialist Party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Espionage Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sedition Act </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Mobilizing for War (Food & Fuel) Conserving Food and Fuel Food Administration Fuel Administration Proposed by Herbert Hoover, Director. Mining Engineer He managed a food-relief for Belgium Proposed by Harry Garfield, Director. Heatless Mondays Closed factories for some days to save coal. Increased agriculture *High prices for farmers *Farm production soared. Conserve supplies. *Reduce food consumption *Wheat less, meatless days.
  34. 34. Mobilizing for War (Money & Funds) <ul><li>To gain money for the War, Wilson created: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government used parades, posters, rallies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sec. Treasury, William Mc Adoo, said: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Everyone who refuses is a German friend and is not entitled to be a US citizen” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result  $23 billion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harder than bonds. After Debate un Congress. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result  $9 billion. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. The End of the Great War (Allied Victory) <ul><li>Armistice terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuate France, Luxembourg, Belgium and Alsace-Lorraine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrender enormous amount of war materials, including naval fleet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied reserved the right to occupy German territory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany had to pay $6,000’ooo,ooo. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>November 11 th 1918, early on that day warring parties signed the armistice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Elevens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 th Hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 th Day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 th Month </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. The End of the Great War <ul><li>Mandate System </li></ul><ul><li>Established in the treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Required colonial rulers to report with the League of Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Big Four (PPC) </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Orlando </li></ul><ul><li>Lloyd George </li></ul><ul><li>George Clemenceau </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Took place in the palace of Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>Last step to end WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourteen points: </li></ul><ul><li>Program for world peace </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Contained 14 principles. </li></ul>
  37. 37. World War One Casualties <ul><li>Over 40 million casualties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 million deaths and 21 million wounded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9.7 million military deaths and about 10.0 million civilian deaths. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reveling Soldiers’ Experiences  new books were published, such as: “All Quiet on the Western Front”. </li></ul>
  38. 39. -Bibliography <ul><li>www.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>History Classes </li></ul><ul><li>American Nation 20 th Century </li></ul>-Special Thanks <ul><li>Patricia Núquez </li></ul><ul><li>Tatiana Cozzarelli </li></ul>
  39. 40. Thank You “… War doesn't determine who is right, it determines who is left.” - Anonymous

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