An introduction to diabetes

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Introduces diabetes, describes the types of diabetes, looks at symptoms, and describes treatments.

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An introduction to diabetes

  1. 1. A Guide to Diabetes
  2. 2. What is diabetes? • When blood glucose (blood sugar) is too high • Blood glucose is sugar found in blood and is main source of energy • Glucose is from food, and is also made in the liver and muscles • Blood carries glucose to cells for energy
  3. 3. Insulin • Insulin helps your blood carry glucose to the body’s cells • It is produced in the pancreas • Sometimes body doesn’t make enough insulin OR insulin doesn’t work like it should • Glucose stays in the blood and doesn’t reach the cells • Result is that blood glucose levels get too high and can cause diabetes or prediabetes
  4. 4. Important notes • Diabetes is a METABOLIC disease (how the body uses digested food for growth and energy) • Insulin is necessary for glucose to get into cells • With diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin, or the cells don’t respond properly to the insulin • Glucose builds up in blood, overflows into urine and passes out of body in urine • So, body loses main source of fuel, even though it has glucose!
  5. 5. 4 types of diabetes • Prediabetes • Type 1 • Type 2 • Gestational
  6. 6. Prediabetes • Prediabetes is when blood glucose is above normal but not high enough to be called diabetes • With prediabetes, your risk of getting diabetes, heart attack and stroke increase • With weight loss and moderate physical activity, you can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes, or even return to normal levels without medications
  7. 7. Type 1 Diabetes • Autoimmune disease • Immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas • So the pancreas produces little or no insulin • Must take insulin to live • If not diagnosed or treated, patient can go into a diabetic coma and die.
  8. 8. Type 2 Diabetes • Most common type of diabetes • 90 to 95% have type 2 • Associated with age, obesity, family history, previous history with gestational, physical inactivity and ethnicity • About 80% are overweight or obese • Pancreas is producing insulin, but body can’t use insulin (called insulin resistance) • As a result, insulin production decreases • Type 2 onset is slow and gradual. You may experience hunger and thirst, weight loss, blurred vision and slow healing of wounds.
  9. 9. Gestational diabetes • Developed by some women late in pregnancy • About 3 to 8% develop, could be related to family history and ethnicity. • Women who have had this have 40 to 60% chance of developing Type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years • Maintaining reasonable weight and exercising may help prevent
  10. 10. Signs and Symptoms of diabetes • Being thirsty • Urinating often • Feeling very hungry • Feeling very tired • Losing weight without trying • Sores that heal slowly • Dry, itchy skin • Feelings of pins and needles in your feet • Losing feeling in your feet • Blurry eyesight If you aren’t sure, see your doctor. The only way to tell is to have a blood test.
  11. 11. How it is diagnosed • A fasting blood glucose test is most reliable • Done after an 8 hour fast • The Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has you drink a beverage with glucose and measures blood glucose after 2 hours • A random blood test can measure blood glucose at that time.
  12. 12. Treatment for Diabetes Type 1 diabetes • Healthy eating • Physical activity • Insulin • Measure blood glucose levels Type 2 diabetes • Healthy eating • Physical activity • Blood glucose testing • Maybe a medication to control blood glucose levels
  13. 13. Why treat diabetes? • Diabetes creates an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (at least 65% of those with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke) • It also has multiple side effects for untreated diabetes for the eyes, kidneys, nerves, gum and teeth.
  14. 14. Symptoms of untreated diabetes • No symptoms if you are developing heart disease! • Vision problems (vision loss, or pain in your eye) • No symptoms if you have diabetes related kidney disease • Tingling, numbness, burning, shooting or stabbing pain in feet, hands or other parts of body. • Sexual problems, digestive problems, difficulty controlling bladder, dizziness and fainting, unable to know when blood sugar is low.

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