Wireless Digital Subscriber Line

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WDSL using WiMAX is the topic and WiMAX is the new upcoming wireless technology the file contains history of wireless systems dsl wifi and wimax

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Wireless Digital Subscriber Line

  1. 1. Wireless Digital Subscriber Line (WDSL) Presented By: Kashif Akram Student ID: 04910284 MSc Mobile Computer Systems Presented To: John Byrne (Supervisor) John Cowley (Second Assessor)
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Wireless Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Fldelity (WiFi) </li></ul><ul><li>World Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Further Work </li></ul>
  3. 3. Wireless Communication <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Future of Handheld devices. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development in last 15 to 20 years. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effectiveness and portability. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to install. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolution of Wireless Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Communication in old times. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Wireless Communication System 1895 by Guglielmo Marconi. (Distance 18 miles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1902 first bidirectional communication system across the Atlantic Ocean from Cornwall to Newfoundland. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Wireless Communication <ul><li>Early Mobile Telephony: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1946, Mobile Telephone System (MTS). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 25 cities of USA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogue and half duplex System. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manual Call Switching. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited channels in some cases there are only 3 channels. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1960, new version of MTS Improved Mobile Telephony System (IMTS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full duplex. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Call Switching and 23 channels can be used simultaneously. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Wireless Communication <ul><li>Analogue Cellular Telephony or 1 st Generation (1G) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IMTS transmitters producing interference. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not efficient use of spectrum. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During 1950’s and 1960’s AT&T Bell Lab introduced new concept of cellular networks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switching cells without the noticeable degradation of voice call. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1982, Advance Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS), the first commercial analogue system in USA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Access Communication System (TACS) adjacent to AMPS, introduced in UK, Spain, Italy, Austria and Ireland. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Wireless Communication <ul><li>Digital Cellular Telephony or 2 nd Generation (2G) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In this the data was represented digitally. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short Messaging Service Support. 10kbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caller ID. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works on 900, 1800, 1900 MHz frequency band. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The system uses 1800 MHz frequency band is known as DCS 1800. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1982 2G activities started in Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Study Group named Group Special Mobile was created for specify a common European Standards later on named as Global Systems for Mobile Communication (GSM). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First deployment 1992. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Wireless Communication <ul><li>High Speed Circuit Switch Data (HSCSD) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GSM is compatible with both the technologies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HSCSD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More time slots per frame result better data rate. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Date rates 57.6, 43.2 and 28.8Kbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support asymmetric communication. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works on HSCSD principle more time slots per frame. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth on demand. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports data rate from 14.4Kbps to 115.2Kbps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports Symmetric and Asymmetric communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Wireless Communication <ul><li>IS95 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1993 new standard of 2G IS95 or CDMAOne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate 4.8 to 14.4Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newer version IS95b or CDMATwo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate 115.2Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D-AMPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1996 advance version of IS95, the IS136 or D-AMPS introduced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate 3Kbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancement of D-AMPS is D-AMPS+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D-AMPS+ offers date rate 9.6 to 19.2Kbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible with IS95. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Wireless Communication <ul><li>Third Generation (3G) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing user demands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancement Data Rates for Global Evolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based modulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical data rate up to 473.6Kbps but practically it is around 68kbps. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backward compatibility GSM. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA-2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancement to Code Division Multiple Access. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate 2Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backward compatibility IS95. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Wireless Communication <ul><li>W-CDMA </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wideband Code Division Multiple Access. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses 5MHz wideband and offers 2Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth Generation (4G) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aim is high data rate up to 100Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of Service (QoS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uninterrupted operation across networks. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Digital Subscriber Line <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in 1989. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main purpose was video streaming. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate up to 6Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric communication. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of DSL </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADSL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for home users. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Download speed from 1.5 to 9Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upload speed is around 1.5Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Digital Subscriber Line <ul><ul><li>ADSL Lite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low speed version of ADSL. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Download speed 1Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upload speed 512Kbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within the range of 18000 feet from service provider. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R-ADSL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same data rates as ADSL but in this the modem can be adjusted variably according to the length of line and quality. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Digital Subscriber Line <ul><ul><ul><li>HDSL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetric connectivity. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate 1.544 to 2.048Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from service provider 12000 to 15000 feet. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for video conferencing. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SDSL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for business applications. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed from 192Kbps to 1.1Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Digital Subscriber Line <ul><ul><ul><li>IDSL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN Digital Subscriber Line </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate 144Kbps which is slightly higher than ISDN 128Kbps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VDSL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest in all DSL types. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rates 13-52Mbps downstream and 1.5 to 2.3Mbps upstream. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance 1000 to 4500 feet from service provider end. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Digital Subscriber Line <ul><li>DSL Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSLAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSL Multiplexer connects DSL lines with ATM, frame relay or internet protocols. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports Quality of Service features like contention, diffserv and priority queues. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The common upstream link in the DSLAM use Giga bit Ethernet or multi Giga bit fibre optic links. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However not a full stateful firewall, some DSLAM’s offers packet filtering. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSLAM acts like a massive network switch. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Digital Subscriber Line <ul><ul><ul><li>ATM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous Transfer Mode. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for voice networks. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still used for voice and TDM services but majorly used for data networks. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed bandwidth at customer end. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installed with network backbone router to assure QoS with high reliability. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is a virtual connection between ATM and Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) using DSLAM. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Digital Subscriber Line
  18. 18. Digital Subscriber Line <ul><li>BRAS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband Remote Access Server. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregates traffic from big number of users to reduce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cost per user. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perform number of functions: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting, Authentication and Authorization (AAA) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VPN </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tunnelling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full IP routing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1994 by WiFi Alliance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1997 IEEE defined WiFi as standard 802.11. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1999 802.11b was introduced. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2002 802.11g was introduced. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works on 2.4GHz and 5GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>There are three methods to implement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LAN Extension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic Access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ad-Hoc Networking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) <ul><ul><ul><li>LAN Extension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Configuration. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone wired network. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control Module (CM) works as interface to WLAN. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CM can be any thing switch or router. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) <ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic Access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offers wireless Link between LAN Hub and a </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wireless station. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless station can be any laptop or wireless router. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) <ul><ul><ul><li>Ad-Hoc Networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peer to Peer network. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No centralized Access Point (AP) each node work as AP . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each node work as a bridge. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best solution for emergency set up. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not Secure. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) <ul><ul><li>Types of WiFi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are many standards I will discuss the most common: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1999. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works on 2.40 and 2.4835GHz band. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical data rate up to 11Mbps on average its 4 to 6Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage area 75 to 100 meters. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interference can be caused by microwave ovens, cordless phones and bluetooth devices. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) <ul><ul><ul><li>802.11a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 2003. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works on 5.725 to 5.850 GHz. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate up to 54Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average data rate is 6,12 and 24Mbps, practical throughput is 20 to 25Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range up to 25 meters. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No interference with microwave or phones. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) <ul><ul><li>802.11g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 2003. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate 54Mbps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works on 2.40 to 2.4835GHz. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible with 802.11b. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage area 75 to 100meters. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created a revolution in the communication world. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non Line of Sight (LOS) communication. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative to wired DSL, T1/E1 variants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE standard 802.16. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth 70Mbps or 2 to 10Mbps/user in 6miles. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency band 10 to 66GHz </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) Addresses network management, efficient handovers and improved QoS 802.16f/g 2005. Support for nomadic roaming and contains hands off procedures between 802.16 and base station. 802.16e June 2003, also known as 802.16d and contains 802.16a and WiMAX forum features 802.16-2004 January 2003, for systems using 11GHz and below 802.16a Ratified 2001.Work on 10-66GHz frequency band. 802.16 Description Standard
  28. 28. Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) <ul><li>Development Scenarios of WiMAX </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Backhauling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective and high performance alternate. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High bandwidth made it superior alternate. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) <ul><ul><ul><li>LOS Based Wireless Broadband Access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less installation time for Telephone Service Providers (TSP’s). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker and cheaper solution for customers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustable speed according to requirements. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.16d can be used for low population or low traffic areas. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) <ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Wireless Services. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE802.16e standard provides mobility. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to traditional wireless technologies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports up to 80M/hr speed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) <ul><li>WiMAX Architecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 802.16 IEEE limited itself to MAC and PHY layer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WiMAX forum is working on End to End architecture. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major components of the architecture are: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASN </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CSN </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) <ul><ul><ul><li>ASN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access Service Network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network may have one or more than one ASN Gateways. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASN manages MAC access functions like, Paging, Radio Resource Management (RRM) and mobility between stations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio level management is done by ASN. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) <ul><ul><ul><li>CSN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivity Service Network. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manages gateways for Internet Access, routers, proxies for AAA, IP allocation, Servers, Internetworking devices, admission and policy control and user database. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Topology Support </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point to Point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point to Multipoint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesh Network </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX)
  35. 35. Conclusion <ul><li>Future of Wireless Handheld devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing flexibility and portability to different enviourment since different regions have different regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing interference between different technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>New high speed data networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving security. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Further Work <ul><li>In my research paper I will be working on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility in WiMAX. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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