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Animal Phyla
 

Animal Phyla

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    Animal Phyla Animal Phyla Presentation Transcript

    •  
    •  
    • Phylum Porifera
      • Sessile
      • Feed by filtering food particles
      • from water that passes through
      • pores in their body
      • Sponges
      • Simplest animals
      • Lack true tissues and
      • organs
      • Asymmetrical
    •  
      • Phylum Cnidaria
      • Jellyfish, Sea Anemone, Coral
      • Tentacles with stinging cells
      • Sessile or slow-moving
      • Tentacles move food into the
      • mouth, then into a digestive sac
      • called the gastrovascular cavity
      • Undigested food and wastes exit
      • back through the mouth
              • Radial symmetry
    •  
    • Phylum Platyhelminthes
      • Flatworms
      • Mobile
      • Most are free-living carnivores
        • -Muscular tube projects through the mouth and sucks in food
        • -Food is then transported to the gastrovascular cavity
        • -Undigested food and wastes exit through the mouth
      • But some are parasitic
      • that absorb digested
      • food from inside a host
      • -Flukes
      • -Tapeworms
    •  
    • Phylum Nematoda
      • Roundworms
      • Complete digestive tract  has two openings. a
      • mouth and an anus, at opposite ends of a continuous
      • tube
      • Decomposers, parasitic,
      • or free-living
      • Human parasitic examples:
      • pinworm & hookworm
    •  
    • Phylum Annelida -segmented worms (earthworms, leeches)‏ -longitudinal and circular muscle fibers surrounding body wall - closed circulatory system: blood remains contained within vessels
    •  
    • Phylum Mollusca -snails, slugs, oysters, clams, octopuses, and squids
    • Phylum Mollusca Anatomy Foot – muscular mass of tissue that functions in locomotion ( video clip )‏ Mantle – outgrowth of body surface that drapes over the animal – produces the shell in certain mollusks – functions in respiration, waste disposal, and sensory reception
    • Mollusks have an open circulatory system – a heart pumps blood into vessels – the vessels open into chambers where the organs are bathed in blood
    •  
    • Phylum Echinodermata -sea urchins, sea stars, sea cucumbers -spines and plates under the skin make up the endoskeleton (but with no central spine)‏ -the water vascular system is a network of water-filled canals that aid movement -tube feet function in locomotion, feeding, and respiration
    •  
    • Phylum Arthropoda
      • Most numerous and diverse animals
        • 75% of animals belong to this phylum
        • global population is 1 billion billion (10 18 )‏
      • 1. crustaceans (lobsters, crabs, shrimp)‏
      • 2. arachnids (spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks)‏
      • 3. insects
      • 4. centipedes and millipedes
    • General Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda
      • Segmented body (different segments):
        • head – sensory antennae, eyes, mouthparts
        • thorax – midsection that bears jointed appendages
        • abdomen – houses digestive and reproductive organs
    • General Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda -open circulatory system with a copper-based blood called hemolyph -unlike humans, arthropod blood does not carry oxygen
    • General Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda How do arthropods get oxygen to their tissues? Aquatic arthropods have gills Terrestrial arthropods have trachea – a system of air tubes
    • Exoskeleton – external skeleton that consists of proteins mixed with chitin – protection, avoid dehydration Must molt periodically General Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda
    • Crustaceans Head and thorax is fused  cephalothorax Have antennae; mostly aquatic Copepods play an enormous role in the food chain of marine and freshwater communities
    • Arachnids Head and thorax is fused  cephalothorax No antennae; mostly terrestrial Two pairs of mouthparts: 1. Fanglike mouthparts used to paralyze prey with poison 2. Mouthparts used to manipulate prey once it is paralyzed
    • Insects – the most successful arthropods Entomology – study of insects Reasons for success: -ability to fly -diverse feeding habits -ability to metamorphasize
    • Many arthropods, including insects, have compound eyes Compound eyes consist of many eyes (can be over 1,000!)‏ Excellent in detecting motion, however, poor image resolution
    • Metamorphosis Metamorphosis – a process in which body form changes from the sexually immature to the sexually mature stage Incomplete metamorphosis: -change is not dramatic -molting causes insect to grow Complete metamorphosis: -larval stage function in eating and growing -adult stage functions in moving and reproducing
    • Phylum Chordata
    • Notochord – flexible rod that extends down the length of the body Invertebrate chordates – notochord becomes skeleton Vertebrate chordates – notochord disintegrates Chordates are named after a structure that is found in all chordate embryos