Animal Phyla


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Animal Phyla

  1. 3. Phylum Porifera <ul><li>Sessile </li></ul><ul><li>Feed by filtering food particles </li></ul><ul><li>from water that passes through </li></ul><ul><li>pores in their body </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest animals </li></ul><ul><li>Lack true tissues and </li></ul><ul><li>organs </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical </li></ul>
  2. 5. <ul><li>Phylum Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Jellyfish, Sea Anemone, Coral </li></ul><ul><li>Tentacles with stinging cells </li></ul><ul><li>Sessile or slow-moving </li></ul><ul><li>Tentacles move food into the </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, then into a digestive sac </li></ul><ul><li>called the gastrovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Undigested food and wastes exit </li></ul><ul><li>back through the mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 7. Phylum Platyhelminthes <ul><li>Flatworms </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Most are free-living carnivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Muscular tube projects through the mouth and sucks in food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Food is then transported to the gastrovascular cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Undigested food and wastes exit through the mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But some are parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>that absorb digested </li></ul><ul><li>food from inside a host </li></ul><ul><li>-Flukes </li></ul><ul><li>-Tapeworms </li></ul>
  4. 9. Phylum Nematoda <ul><li>Roundworms </li></ul><ul><li>Complete digestive tract  has two openings. a </li></ul><ul><li>mouth and an anus, at opposite ends of a continuous </li></ul><ul><li>tube </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers, parasitic, </li></ul><ul><li>or free-living </li></ul><ul><li>Human parasitic examples: </li></ul><ul><li>pinworm & hookworm </li></ul>
  5. 11. Phylum Annelida -segmented worms (earthworms, leeches)‏ -longitudinal and circular muscle fibers surrounding body wall - closed circulatory system: blood remains contained within vessels
  6. 13. Phylum Mollusca -snails, slugs, oysters, clams, octopuses, and squids
  7. 14. Phylum Mollusca Anatomy Foot – muscular mass of tissue that functions in locomotion ( video clip )‏ Mantle – outgrowth of body surface that drapes over the animal – produces the shell in certain mollusks – functions in respiration, waste disposal, and sensory reception
  8. 15. Mollusks have an open circulatory system – a heart pumps blood into vessels – the vessels open into chambers where the organs are bathed in blood
  9. 17. Phylum Echinodermata -sea urchins, sea stars, sea cucumbers -spines and plates under the skin make up the endoskeleton (but with no central spine)‏ -the water vascular system is a network of water-filled canals that aid movement -tube feet function in locomotion, feeding, and respiration
  10. 19. Phylum Arthropoda <ul><li>Most numerous and diverse animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of animals belong to this phylum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>global population is 1 billion billion (10 18 )‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. crustaceans (lobsters, crabs, shrimp)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>2. arachnids (spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>3. insects </li></ul><ul><li>4. centipedes and millipedes </li></ul>
  11. 20. General Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda <ul><li>Segmented body (different segments): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>head – sensory antennae, eyes, mouthparts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thorax – midsection that bears jointed appendages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abdomen – houses digestive and reproductive organs </li></ul></ul>
  12. 21. General Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda -open circulatory system with a copper-based blood called hemolyph -unlike humans, arthropod blood does not carry oxygen
  13. 22. General Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda How do arthropods get oxygen to their tissues? Aquatic arthropods have gills Terrestrial arthropods have trachea – a system of air tubes
  14. 23. Exoskeleton – external skeleton that consists of proteins mixed with chitin – protection, avoid dehydration Must molt periodically General Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda
  15. 24. Crustaceans Head and thorax is fused  cephalothorax Have antennae; mostly aquatic Copepods play an enormous role in the food chain of marine and freshwater communities
  16. 25. Arachnids Head and thorax is fused  cephalothorax No antennae; mostly terrestrial Two pairs of mouthparts: 1. Fanglike mouthparts used to paralyze prey with poison 2. Mouthparts used to manipulate prey once it is paralyzed
  17. 26. Insects – the most successful arthropods Entomology – study of insects Reasons for success: -ability to fly -diverse feeding habits -ability to metamorphasize
  18. 27. Many arthropods, including insects, have compound eyes Compound eyes consist of many eyes (can be over 1,000!)‏ Excellent in detecting motion, however, poor image resolution
  19. 28. Metamorphosis Metamorphosis – a process in which body form changes from the sexually immature to the sexually mature stage Incomplete metamorphosis: -change is not dramatic -molting causes insect to grow Complete metamorphosis: -larval stage function in eating and growing -adult stage functions in moving and reproducing
  20. 29. Phylum Chordata
  21. 30. Notochord – flexible rod that extends down the length of the body Invertebrate chordates – notochord becomes skeleton Vertebrate chordates – notochord disintegrates Chordates are named after a structure that is found in all chordate embryos