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Lecture 8: Animals
What is an animal?

Multicellular eukaryotes
Chemoheterotrophs- digest food inside
body
Sexual reproduction
Muscles and nerves
Animal Ancestry
Colonial flagellate hypothesis
   Ancestor was colony of flagellates in a sphere > cells
   became specialized > infolding created two layers of
   cells
   Supported by fact that many tissues develop this
   way embryonically
   Supported by implication that radial symmetry
   preceeded bilateral symmetry
   Supported by choanoflagellates- closest protist
   relative of animals
Colonial Flagellate

•   This is an illustration of
    Proterospongia. The cells
    are embedded in a jelly-
    like matrix. Whether this
    is a colonial
    choanoflagellate or a very
    simple animal depends
    upon whom you ask.
Evolution

 Many kinds arose during Cambrian
 explosion, happened so fast the origin of
 many is murky
 DNA evidence points to the tree we
 currently use
 See pg. 312
Terms Used for Classification
Germ layer: tissue layers found in embryos;
develop into different tissue types
Endoderm: Innermost germ layer- gives rise
to lining of digestive tract, etc.
Ectoderm: Outermost germ layer- gives rise
to nervous system and outer integument
Mesoderm: Middle germ layer- gives rise to
many organs, muscle, connective tissue
Terms Used for Classification

Radial symmetry: organized circularly
Bilateral symmetry: left- right
symmetry (like us)
Cephalization: localization of brain and
sensory organs
Terms Used for Classification

Protosomes: the first embryonic opening
becomes the mouth
Deuterosomes: the first embryonic
opening becomes the anus
Coelom: Body cavity where the organs
are located
Terms Used for Classification

Acoelomates: do not have a coelom
Pseudocoelomates: have a partial coelom
Coelomates: have a true coelom
Segmentation: repetition of body parts
along the length of the body
Classification


Animals are classified based on the
characteristics we just listed
We will now examine different groups
Sponges
Phylum Poriphera
Base of evolutionary tree of animals - collar cells at pores
are basically identical to choanoflagellates
Cellular level organization
    Multicellular, but lack organized tissues
Filter feeders, can filter huge amounts of water per day
Can reproduce both sexually and asexually
    Asexually: budding
    Sexually: eggs and sperm released into central cavity
Cnidarians
Phylum Cnidaria, sea anemones and
jellyfish
Have radial symmetry
Have two germ layers: ecto and endoderm
Capture prey with tentacles that have
stinging cells
Have tissue level of organization
Flatworms
Phylum Platyhelmenthes
Bilateral symmetry
Have all 3 germ layers
Acoelomates
Have cephalization- small brain, eyespots,
chemosensitive organs
Captures food by wrapping it up and covering it
in mucus, then tearing and sucking up
More flatworms
Digestive tract only has one opening
Hemaphrodites; sexual reproduction
Free living are called planarians
Parasitic are tapeworms and flukes
  Have hooks and suckers on mouth to
  hold onto host tissues
  Can live for years
Roundworms
Phylum Nematoda
Have a body cavity- Pseudocoelomates, because not
completely surrounded by mesoderm
Complete digestive tract- open on both ends
Nonsegmented
Many are free living and live in a variety of habitats
and eat a variety of food
Many parasites as well: roundworm, hookworm,
Elephantiasis, Trichinosis
Hookworms and the
American South
People in the South after the Civil War seen as
lazy
Study of people and hygiene habits
Trees instead of latrines used
Hookworms! Can travel up to 6’ after being
deposited- were causing large infections
Just digging a hole that was 6’ deep solved the
problem
Molluscs
Phylum Mollusca, snails, octopuses, scallops, clams,
nautiluses
Have a coelom, proteosomes
Have 3 parts:
   Visceral mass: contains organs
   Foot: used for locomotion
   Mantle: covers the visceral mass- may secrete
   exoskeleton to form shell
   Also may have a radula: like a toothy tongue
Molluscs
There are 3 types of molluscs:gastropods,
cephalopods, bivalves
Gastropods: Conchs, snails, nudibranchs
   Foot ventrally flattened, muscle
   contractions pass along the foot to move it
   Terrestrial snails use the mantle as a
   lung
Molluscs
Cephalopods: Octopus, Squid, Nautilus
“Head-footed” - the foot is the tentacles around
the head
   Have a beak- use tentacles to seize prey and
   beak and radula to tear it up
Complex nervous and sensory systems
Can move quickly by jetting water out of the
mantle
Molluscs
Bivalves: Clams, oysters, scallops,
mussels
Shell has two parts, foot projects
ventrally from shell
Filter feeders, water enters through a
siphon and food adheres to the gills; food
then moved to the mouth by cillia
Annelids
Phylum Annelida, worms
Has coelom and are segmented, proteosomes
Coelom is filled with fluid; it is divided by septa which make
it more rigid- facilitates movement
Complete digestive tract; have crop, gizzard, intestine,
accessory glands, etc.
Circulatory system to carry blood
Have a brain
Remove waste by nephridia- ducts that carry waste to pores
in the skin
Annelids
Again, 3 main groups: Polychaetes, oligochaetes,
leeches
Divided by how many setae (=bristles) on each
body segment- these bristles anchor the worm and
help it move
Polychaetes: have many setae, are predatory
Oligochaetes: Have a few- decomposers that live in
soil: earthworms
leeches: No setae - have suckers to attach to food
Polychaetes
Oligochaetes



               Giant earthworm!
Leeches
Arthropods
Phylum Arthropoda: Over one million species! Insects, crustaceans,
arachnids
Coelom, segmented, proteosomes
Have six characteristics:
    1. Jointed appendages- hollow tubes moved by muscles
    2. Exoskeleton- made of chitin, rigid and jointed
    3. Segmentation- Some repeated, some fused in to head, abdomen
    and thorax only
    4. Well-developed nervous system- Brain and ventral nerve cord,
    eyes, many other senses
    5. Variety of respiratory organs- Gills, book lungs, or trachae, also
    open circulatory system
    6. Metamorphosis- reduces competition of various age classes
Arthropods
Crustaceans: lobsters, crabs, barnacles, shrimp
Mostly marine, but also freshwater (crayfish) and
terrestrial (pillbugs)
Head has 5 pairs of appendages: antennae,
antennules- sensory, 3 mouthparts
Thorax has 5 pairs of walking legs, first is the claw
Abdomen has swimmerets- like small paddles and
tail
Hugely important in food chain - krill, etc
Arthropods
Arachnids: Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites,
harvestmen
Spiders- Have cephalothorax and abdomen, kill
prey with venom, use silk
Scorpions- oldest terrestrial arthropods, nocturnal
Ticks- are parasitic
Horseshoe crabs- grouped with arachnids, but very
unique in many ways
Arthropods

Insects: Largest group of animals
Have head, thorax, and abdomen
Can have wings- one or two pairs
Live in huge variety of environments
and eat huge variety of food
Echinoderms
Phylum Echinodermata: sea stars, sea urchins,
sea cucumbers
Deuterosomes; bilaterally sym. as larvae but
radially sym. as adult
No head, brain or segmentation
No advanced nervous or circulatory system
These seem so primitive, why discuss them here?
   They are closely related to Chordates!
Chordates
Phylum Chordata: Fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
Coelom, deuterosomes, segmented
4 characteristics:
    1. Notochord: Dorsal supporting rod
    2. Dorsal tubular nerve cord: contains a tube filled with fluid
    3. Pharyngeal pouches: in many, seen only in the embryo-
    become gills in larval amphibians and fish, in humans
    become auditory tubes, tonsils, thymus and parathyroids
    4. Tail: A postanal tail
Chordates
Most chordates are vertebrates, in which the
notochord has been replaced by the vertebrae
(backbones) which protect the nerve cord
(spinal cord)
However, there are a few chordates that are
invertebrates: the Tunicates and the
Lancelets
   Marine organisms- sea squirts
Vertebrates

Series of evolutionary advances used to
characterize the verts-
See evolutionary tree on pg. 325 for a
list of these advances
Here, Fishy, Fishy, Fishy
Jawless fish: the first vertebrates
   No jaws- they are cylindrical, do not have
   paired fins- they undulate through the
   water
   Two groups today: hagfish and lampreys-
   they have a circular mouth
   Jaws are thought to have evolved from the
   first pair of gill arches
Fish- Sharks!

Sharks, rays and skates are
Cartilaginous fish, they have a skeleton
made of cartilage instead of bones
Great predators: they can sense electrical
currents, pressure changes, and have a
great sense of smell
FISH
Bony fish: most numerous and diverse, two types:
   Ray-finned: Like trout, perch, etc., very diverse
   group
      Have swim bladder to control buoyancy, skin
      covered by bony scales
      Respire by having water flow through the
      mouth over the gills
      Single circuit circulatory system- Heart
      pumps blood to gills and then directly to body
FISH


Lobe-finned: Have fleshy fins
  Ancestors of amphibians
  Most have lung- so can breathe air
Amphibians
Frogs, toads, salamanders, cecilians
Have jointed limbs so can walk on land, also
eyelids to keep eye moist, ears, larynx, larger brain
Need water to reproduce
Most have lungs, also respire through skin
3 chambered heart, blood from body and lungs is
sent out to body and lungs
Most show metamorphosis
Reptiles
Dinos, snakes, lizards, turtles, crocs, birds
Body covered in scales
3 chambered heart
Can reproduce on land without water- amniote
egg- provides embryo with food, water and
oxygen, protects it from drying
Except for birds (and some dinos?) are
ectothermic- body temp controlled by environment
Birds
Really, birds are reptiles- feathers are just
modified scales
However, some differences- egg is hard instead of
leathery, endothermic
Flying- many many adaptations to allow flight
   Hollow bones, front legs are wings
4 chambered heart
Well-developed brains, good vision
Mammals
Mammals have mammary glands that produce milk for
offspring, and hair
First mammals were monotremes and marsupials-
monotremes lay eggs, marsupials have pouch
Placental mammals evolved later, but are most diverse
group today
   Embryo develops inside uterus, maternal blood
   provides nutrients and oxygen
   It is the same membranes that do this in the egg that
   do this in the uterus- what the afterbirth is
Mammals have big brains and are very active
Humans
Humans are Primates- includes
monkeys, apes and humans
  This does not mean monkeys
  apes       humans
  Rather, it means that all primates
  share a common ancestor
Primates
Primates primarily adapted to arboreal life-
limbs are mobile, have 5 digits, have
opposable thumb and frequently big toe
Trend is towards larger and more complex
brain
Humans most closely related to African
apes- chimps, gorillas
   last common ancestor ~ 7 MYA
Hominids

Humans, apes and human-like
ancestors are the hominids
  Can stand erect and walk on two feet
We will discuss some human ancestors
Hominids
Early fossils, around 7 MYA, the time
of the ape- hominid split:
  Sahelanthropus tchadensis: opening
  for spine suggests bipedalism,
  smaller canines
Ardipithicus ramidus: 4 MYA, teeth less
apelike, only fragments found so far
Hominids
Australopithecines- group of hominids
that diversified in Africa about 4 MYA
  A. afarensis- Lucy- stood upright,
  bipedal, but small brain (3.18 MYA)
  One of these species may be the direct
  ancestor of humans
Hominids
Homo habilis- ~2 MYA, larger brain, used
tools, smaller teeth
  skulls seem to indicate that the speech
  centers of the brain were enlarged- could
  probably communicate and co-operate to
  gather food
  Co-operation may have led to H. habilis
  out-competing the Australopithecines
Hominids
Homo erectus- 1.9- 0.3 MYA, fossils found in
Africa, but also Asia and Europe
   Probably several species included in this
   group
   Still larger skulls, flatter face, taller
   Fossils found in many sites- were able to
   travel long distances
   First to use fire, made advanced tools
Hominids
Homo neandertalensis- 200,000 YO, found in
Germany
  Short, stocky, heavy build, prominent brow
  Culturally advanced- lived in caves, may
  have made houses, made many tools
  Hunted large animals
  Buried their dead
Hominids
Cro-Magnons- oldest fossils to be
designated as our species, Homo sapiens
  Fossils from France
  Compound tools, great hunters
  Had language, lived in groups
  Had art- cave drawings
Hominids
Homo sapiens- how did first humans evolve?
   We’re not sure- there are two theories:
       Out of Africa: H. sapiens evolved in Africa, migrated
       to Europe and Asia and replaced hominids already
       there
       Multiregional continuity hypothesis: evolved
       independently in several regions
       In the MCH- different regions would be genetically
       dissimilar, OOA would be more genetically alike
           Thus far it seems that the OOA is the most
           supported

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Animals

  • 2. What is an animal? Multicellular eukaryotes Chemoheterotrophs- digest food inside body Sexual reproduction Muscles and nerves
  • 3. Animal Ancestry Colonial flagellate hypothesis Ancestor was colony of flagellates in a sphere > cells became specialized > infolding created two layers of cells Supported by fact that many tissues develop this way embryonically Supported by implication that radial symmetry preceeded bilateral symmetry Supported by choanoflagellates- closest protist relative of animals
  • 4. Colonial Flagellate • This is an illustration of Proterospongia. The cells are embedded in a jelly- like matrix. Whether this is a colonial choanoflagellate or a very simple animal depends upon whom you ask.
  • 5. Evolution Many kinds arose during Cambrian explosion, happened so fast the origin of many is murky DNA evidence points to the tree we currently use See pg. 312
  • 6. Terms Used for Classification Germ layer: tissue layers found in embryos; develop into different tissue types Endoderm: Innermost germ layer- gives rise to lining of digestive tract, etc. Ectoderm: Outermost germ layer- gives rise to nervous system and outer integument Mesoderm: Middle germ layer- gives rise to many organs, muscle, connective tissue
  • 7. Terms Used for Classification Radial symmetry: organized circularly Bilateral symmetry: left- right symmetry (like us) Cephalization: localization of brain and sensory organs
  • 8. Terms Used for Classification Protosomes: the first embryonic opening becomes the mouth Deuterosomes: the first embryonic opening becomes the anus Coelom: Body cavity where the organs are located
  • 9. Terms Used for Classification Acoelomates: do not have a coelom Pseudocoelomates: have a partial coelom Coelomates: have a true coelom Segmentation: repetition of body parts along the length of the body
  • 10. Classification Animals are classified based on the characteristics we just listed We will now examine different groups
  • 11. Sponges Phylum Poriphera Base of evolutionary tree of animals - collar cells at pores are basically identical to choanoflagellates Cellular level organization Multicellular, but lack organized tissues Filter feeders, can filter huge amounts of water per day Can reproduce both sexually and asexually Asexually: budding Sexually: eggs and sperm released into central cavity
  • 12.
  • 13. Cnidarians Phylum Cnidaria, sea anemones and jellyfish Have radial symmetry Have two germ layers: ecto and endoderm Capture prey with tentacles that have stinging cells Have tissue level of organization
  • 14.
  • 15. Flatworms Phylum Platyhelmenthes Bilateral symmetry Have all 3 germ layers Acoelomates Have cephalization- small brain, eyespots, chemosensitive organs Captures food by wrapping it up and covering it in mucus, then tearing and sucking up
  • 16.
  • 17. More flatworms Digestive tract only has one opening Hemaphrodites; sexual reproduction Free living are called planarians Parasitic are tapeworms and flukes Have hooks and suckers on mouth to hold onto host tissues Can live for years
  • 18. Roundworms Phylum Nematoda Have a body cavity- Pseudocoelomates, because not completely surrounded by mesoderm Complete digestive tract- open on both ends Nonsegmented Many are free living and live in a variety of habitats and eat a variety of food Many parasites as well: roundworm, hookworm, Elephantiasis, Trichinosis
  • 19.
  • 20. Hookworms and the American South People in the South after the Civil War seen as lazy Study of people and hygiene habits Trees instead of latrines used Hookworms! Can travel up to 6’ after being deposited- were causing large infections Just digging a hole that was 6’ deep solved the problem
  • 21.
  • 22. Molluscs Phylum Mollusca, snails, octopuses, scallops, clams, nautiluses Have a coelom, proteosomes Have 3 parts: Visceral mass: contains organs Foot: used for locomotion Mantle: covers the visceral mass- may secrete exoskeleton to form shell Also may have a radula: like a toothy tongue
  • 23. Molluscs There are 3 types of molluscs:gastropods, cephalopods, bivalves Gastropods: Conchs, snails, nudibranchs Foot ventrally flattened, muscle contractions pass along the foot to move it Terrestrial snails use the mantle as a lung
  • 24.
  • 25. Molluscs Cephalopods: Octopus, Squid, Nautilus “Head-footed” - the foot is the tentacles around the head Have a beak- use tentacles to seize prey and beak and radula to tear it up Complex nervous and sensory systems Can move quickly by jetting water out of the mantle
  • 26.
  • 27. Molluscs Bivalves: Clams, oysters, scallops, mussels Shell has two parts, foot projects ventrally from shell Filter feeders, water enters through a siphon and food adheres to the gills; food then moved to the mouth by cillia
  • 28.
  • 29. Annelids Phylum Annelida, worms Has coelom and are segmented, proteosomes Coelom is filled with fluid; it is divided by septa which make it more rigid- facilitates movement Complete digestive tract; have crop, gizzard, intestine, accessory glands, etc. Circulatory system to carry blood Have a brain Remove waste by nephridia- ducts that carry waste to pores in the skin
  • 30. Annelids Again, 3 main groups: Polychaetes, oligochaetes, leeches Divided by how many setae (=bristles) on each body segment- these bristles anchor the worm and help it move Polychaetes: have many setae, are predatory Oligochaetes: Have a few- decomposers that live in soil: earthworms leeches: No setae - have suckers to attach to food
  • 32. Oligochaetes Giant earthworm!
  • 34. Arthropods Phylum Arthropoda: Over one million species! Insects, crustaceans, arachnids Coelom, segmented, proteosomes Have six characteristics: 1. Jointed appendages- hollow tubes moved by muscles 2. Exoskeleton- made of chitin, rigid and jointed 3. Segmentation- Some repeated, some fused in to head, abdomen and thorax only 4. Well-developed nervous system- Brain and ventral nerve cord, eyes, many other senses 5. Variety of respiratory organs- Gills, book lungs, or trachae, also open circulatory system 6. Metamorphosis- reduces competition of various age classes
  • 35. Arthropods Crustaceans: lobsters, crabs, barnacles, shrimp Mostly marine, but also freshwater (crayfish) and terrestrial (pillbugs) Head has 5 pairs of appendages: antennae, antennules- sensory, 3 mouthparts Thorax has 5 pairs of walking legs, first is the claw Abdomen has swimmerets- like small paddles and tail Hugely important in food chain - krill, etc
  • 36.
  • 37. Arthropods Arachnids: Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, harvestmen Spiders- Have cephalothorax and abdomen, kill prey with venom, use silk Scorpions- oldest terrestrial arthropods, nocturnal Ticks- are parasitic Horseshoe crabs- grouped with arachnids, but very unique in many ways
  • 38.
  • 39. Arthropods Insects: Largest group of animals Have head, thorax, and abdomen Can have wings- one or two pairs Live in huge variety of environments and eat huge variety of food
  • 40.
  • 41. Echinoderms Phylum Echinodermata: sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers Deuterosomes; bilaterally sym. as larvae but radially sym. as adult No head, brain or segmentation No advanced nervous or circulatory system These seem so primitive, why discuss them here? They are closely related to Chordates!
  • 42.
  • 43. Chordates Phylum Chordata: Fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals Coelom, deuterosomes, segmented 4 characteristics: 1. Notochord: Dorsal supporting rod 2. Dorsal tubular nerve cord: contains a tube filled with fluid 3. Pharyngeal pouches: in many, seen only in the embryo- become gills in larval amphibians and fish, in humans become auditory tubes, tonsils, thymus and parathyroids 4. Tail: A postanal tail
  • 44. Chordates Most chordates are vertebrates, in which the notochord has been replaced by the vertebrae (backbones) which protect the nerve cord (spinal cord) However, there are a few chordates that are invertebrates: the Tunicates and the Lancelets Marine organisms- sea squirts
  • 45. Vertebrates Series of evolutionary advances used to characterize the verts- See evolutionary tree on pg. 325 for a list of these advances
  • 46. Here, Fishy, Fishy, Fishy Jawless fish: the first vertebrates No jaws- they are cylindrical, do not have paired fins- they undulate through the water Two groups today: hagfish and lampreys- they have a circular mouth Jaws are thought to have evolved from the first pair of gill arches
  • 47.
  • 48. Fish- Sharks! Sharks, rays and skates are Cartilaginous fish, they have a skeleton made of cartilage instead of bones Great predators: they can sense electrical currents, pressure changes, and have a great sense of smell
  • 49.
  • 50. FISH Bony fish: most numerous and diverse, two types: Ray-finned: Like trout, perch, etc., very diverse group Have swim bladder to control buoyancy, skin covered by bony scales Respire by having water flow through the mouth over the gills Single circuit circulatory system- Heart pumps blood to gills and then directly to body
  • 51.
  • 52. FISH Lobe-finned: Have fleshy fins Ancestors of amphibians Most have lung- so can breathe air
  • 53.
  • 54. Amphibians Frogs, toads, salamanders, cecilians Have jointed limbs so can walk on land, also eyelids to keep eye moist, ears, larynx, larger brain Need water to reproduce Most have lungs, also respire through skin 3 chambered heart, blood from body and lungs is sent out to body and lungs Most show metamorphosis
  • 55. Reptiles Dinos, snakes, lizards, turtles, crocs, birds Body covered in scales 3 chambered heart Can reproduce on land without water- amniote egg- provides embryo with food, water and oxygen, protects it from drying Except for birds (and some dinos?) are ectothermic- body temp controlled by environment
  • 56. Birds Really, birds are reptiles- feathers are just modified scales However, some differences- egg is hard instead of leathery, endothermic Flying- many many adaptations to allow flight Hollow bones, front legs are wings 4 chambered heart Well-developed brains, good vision
  • 57. Mammals Mammals have mammary glands that produce milk for offspring, and hair First mammals were monotremes and marsupials- monotremes lay eggs, marsupials have pouch Placental mammals evolved later, but are most diverse group today Embryo develops inside uterus, maternal blood provides nutrients and oxygen It is the same membranes that do this in the egg that do this in the uterus- what the afterbirth is Mammals have big brains and are very active
  • 58. Humans Humans are Primates- includes monkeys, apes and humans This does not mean monkeys apes humans Rather, it means that all primates share a common ancestor
  • 59. Primates Primates primarily adapted to arboreal life- limbs are mobile, have 5 digits, have opposable thumb and frequently big toe Trend is towards larger and more complex brain Humans most closely related to African apes- chimps, gorillas last common ancestor ~ 7 MYA
  • 60. Hominids Humans, apes and human-like ancestors are the hominids Can stand erect and walk on two feet We will discuss some human ancestors
  • 61. Hominids Early fossils, around 7 MYA, the time of the ape- hominid split: Sahelanthropus tchadensis: opening for spine suggests bipedalism, smaller canines Ardipithicus ramidus: 4 MYA, teeth less apelike, only fragments found so far
  • 62.
  • 63. Hominids Australopithecines- group of hominids that diversified in Africa about 4 MYA A. afarensis- Lucy- stood upright, bipedal, but small brain (3.18 MYA) One of these species may be the direct ancestor of humans
  • 64.
  • 65. Hominids Homo habilis- ~2 MYA, larger brain, used tools, smaller teeth skulls seem to indicate that the speech centers of the brain were enlarged- could probably communicate and co-operate to gather food Co-operation may have led to H. habilis out-competing the Australopithecines
  • 66. Hominids Homo erectus- 1.9- 0.3 MYA, fossils found in Africa, but also Asia and Europe Probably several species included in this group Still larger skulls, flatter face, taller Fossils found in many sites- were able to travel long distances First to use fire, made advanced tools
  • 67. Hominids Homo neandertalensis- 200,000 YO, found in Germany Short, stocky, heavy build, prominent brow Culturally advanced- lived in caves, may have made houses, made many tools Hunted large animals Buried their dead
  • 68. Hominids Cro-Magnons- oldest fossils to be designated as our species, Homo sapiens Fossils from France Compound tools, great hunters Had language, lived in groups Had art- cave drawings
  • 69. Hominids Homo sapiens- how did first humans evolve? We’re not sure- there are two theories: Out of Africa: H. sapiens evolved in Africa, migrated to Europe and Asia and replaced hominids already there Multiregional continuity hypothesis: evolved independently in several regions In the MCH- different regions would be genetically dissimilar, OOA would be more genetically alike Thus far it seems that the OOA is the most supported

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