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  1. 1. Vertebrate Animals<br />DOMAIN- Eukarya<br /> KINGDOM- Animalia<br />PHYLUM- Chordata<br />SUBPHYLUM- Vertebrata<br />CLASS- 7 different<br />ORDERS- 10 Placental mammals<br />
  2. 2. Phylum Chordata<br />Recall that vertebrates are chordates.<br />Phylum Chordata includes the lancelets and tunicates (invertebrate chordates) as well as the vertebrates<br />All chordates have:<br />
  3. 3. Characteristics of all Vertebrates<br />Endoskeleton with a backbone for support of a dorsal nerve cord & muscle attachment<br />Distinct skull/cephalization<br />Bilateral symmetry<br />2 pairs of jointed appendages<br />Coelom <br />Closed circulatory system & chambered heart<br />
  4. 4. Vertebrate Evolution<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Major Groups of Vertebrates<br /><ul><li>Fish – aquatic tetrapods with scales, gills, & 2 chambered hearts
  7. 7. Agnathans – jawless fishes – hagfish and lampreys
  8. 8. Chondrichthyes – cartilagenous fish - sharks & rays
  9. 9. Osteichthyes – bony fish – mahi-mahi, tilapia, halibut, puffer fish, tetras, guppies
  10. 10. Amphibians – semiaquatic tetrapods with split lives & 3-chambered hearts
  11. 11. Anura – “tailless ones” – frogs & toads
  12. 12. Urodela – “tailed ones” – salamanders & newts
  13. 13. Apoda – “legless ones” - caecilians
  14. 14. Reptiles – terrestrial amniote tetrapods with scales & lungs & 3-ish to 4 chambered hearts
  15. 15. Squamata – lizards and snakes
  16. 16. Testudines – turtles & tortoises
  17. 17. Crocodilia – alligators, crocodiles, and related species</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Birds – terrestrial amniote tetrapods with feathers & lungs & 4 chambered hearts
  18. 18. Ratites – ostriches, emus, kiwis
  19. 19. Passeriformes – perching birds – jays, sparrows, crows, etc.
  20. 20. Aquatic birds – ducks, swans, geese
  21. 21. Raptors – eagles, falcolns, hawks
  22. 22. Penguins
  23. 23. Mammals – terrestrial amniote tetrapods with lungs, hair and mammary glands & 4 chambered hearts
  24. 24. Monotremes – echidna and platypus
  25. 25. Marsupials – koala, kangaroo, opossom
  26. 26. Placentals – humans, bears, tigers, giraffes, deer, pigs, dogs, cats, raccoons, squirrels, whales, walruses, manatees, etc</li></li></ul><li>Fish Vocabulary<br /><ul><li>Gill – respiratory structure that uses countercurrent exchange to extract oxygen from water
  27. 27. Operculum – gill covering in bony fish
  28. 28. Lateral line - a row of microscopic organs sensitive to pressure changes, can detect low frequency vibrations.
  29. 29. Swim bladder – internal, air-filled sac that acts as an organ for buoyancy in bony fish; sharks have oils in their livers to help them remain buoyant
  30. 30. Scale – small, platelike structure covering an organism (or parts of an organism); sharks, fish, reptiles, and birds all have different types of scales
  31. 31. Fin – paired appendage found on fish used for locomotion and steering
  32. 32. Reproduction
  33. 33. External fertilization – release of gametes to the environment where fertilization takes place; bony fish
  34. 34. Internal fertilization – deposition of sperm in the female reproductive tract where fertilization takes place; sharks
  35. 35. Hermaphrodite – some organisms are capable of producing both male and female gametes; few are capable of self-fertilization; most exchange sperm; evolutionary adaptation for solitary and slow-moving or sessile organisms
  36. 36. Ovoviviparous = eggs are fertilized inside the parent and hatch inside the parent and are born live</li></ul>Oviparous = eggs are laid in a nest or in the ground and hatch<br />Viviparous = internal fertilization with live born young (as soon as the egg is fertilized, it becomes an embryo and develops as a fetus).<br />
  37. 37. Class Agnatha<br />Hagfish and lampreys<br /><ul><li>Jawless & finless
  38. 38. Skeleton of cartilage
  39. 39. Reproduce sexually
  40. 40. Gills
  41. 41. 2 Chambered Heart
  42. 42. Oviparous</li></ul>Hagfish – a detritivore<br />Lamprey – an ectoparasite<br />
  43. 43. Evolution of Gnathostomes – the jawed fishes<br />Gills are supported by cartilage or bone. Some of these gill supports became other structures, including the jaws and inner ear bones of other vertebrates.<br />
  44. 44. Class Chondrichthyes – sharks and rays<br /><ul><li>Endoskeleton made of cartilage
  45. 45. Paired fins
  46. 46. Jaws
  47. 47. 2 chambered heart
  48. 48. Well-developed sense of sight and smell
  49. 49. Lateral line system (for sensing pressure changes – vibrations - in water); whole body acts as an “ear”
  50. 50. unique scales; teeth may be modified scales
  51. 51. Oviparous, ovoviviparous, and a few are viviparous
  52. 52. Internal fertilization using claspers to deposit sperm in female reproductive tract</li></li></ul><li>Sharks have a unique digestive structure called spiral valve that increases surface area<br />Can detect electrical fields of living organisms with special pores in their skin (not the same as the lateral line system which they also have)<br />Sharks & some rays are carnivores<br />Rays (and the largest sharks) are suspension feeders<br />
  53. 53. Class Osteichthyes<br />Tuna, perch, bass, clown fish, eels, seahorses, goldfish, catfish, etc….<br />* One of the most successful groups on Earth – ever!<br /><ul><li>Endoskeleton made of bones
  54. 54. Swim bladder
  55. 55. Usually, external fertilization & oviparous (think caviar)
  56. 56. Lateral line system
  57. 57. Scales different from those in sharks
  58. 58. 2 chambered heart (all fish!)
  59. 59. Water balance important; some fish excrete salt through their gills, others very watery nitrogenous waste using kidneys</li></li></ul><li>Three main groups of Osteichthyes – bony fish<br />Above: internal anatomy of a ray-finned fish<br /> left - photo of a lobe-finned fish; right – photo of a lungfish<br />
  60. 60. Aquatic tetrapods gave rise to the first amphibians, who probably came on land in search of food (abundant plant and arthropod species in Devonian)<br />
  61. 61. Amphibian Vocabulary<br />Ectotherm – organism that must gain (or lose) heat from the environment to maintain body temperature; metabolism is NOT sufficient to heat the body; most invertebrates, fish, amphibians, & reptiles<br />Endotherm – organism that maintains a stable body temperature through metabolism; few reptiles, most birds and mammals, insects<br />Metamorphosis – change from a sexually immature stage to a sexually mature stage in the life cycle; involves change in body structure and niche; ex) tadpoles are herbivorous, aquatic larvae with gills and no limbs that change into carnivorous, terrestrial adult frogs with lungs and 4 limbs<br />Tetrapod – vertebrate with 4 limbs located in pectoral and pelvic girdles<br />Lungs – internal respiratory organs that exchange gases across a membrane surface, usually in conjunction with the circulatory system<br />Cloaca – common opening to the outside of the body through which fecal material, nitrogenous waste and gametes pass; common to amphibians, reptiles, and birds<br />
  62. 62. Class Amphibia<br />Frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts<br /><ul><li>Ectotherms
  63. 63. Need H2O for breeding
  64. 64. Metamorphosis (tadpole  frog)
  65. 65. Gas exchange through moist skin & mouth; primitive balloon-like lungs
  66. 66. External fertilization
  67. 67. Oviparous
  68. 68. 3-chambered heart
  69. 69. Many have chromatophores in the skin for coloration, as well as poison glands for defense
  70. 70. Nitrogenous waste varies – aquatic habitat – dilute urine; terrestrial, concentrated urine</li></li></ul><li>3 major groups of amphibians:<br />Anura – frogs & toads; tailless<br />Apoda – caecilians; legless<br />Urodela – salamanders & newts<br />
  71. 71. Reptile Vocabulary<br />Amniotic egg – adaptation to terrestrial life that results in a water-proof egg with extra-embryonic membranes that aid in the vital functions of a living organism<br />Extinct – all members of a species have died; ex) pterosaurs<br />Extant – members of a species are still alive<br />Bask – behavioral adaptation of ectotherms to increase body heat; involves moving to locations where more radiant energy (such as from the sun or warm rocks) is available for absorption<br />
  72. 72. Amniotic egg in reptiles<br /> - note leathery shell characteristic of reptilian eggs<br />
  73. 73. Class Reptilia<br />turtles, snakes & lizards, crocodiles<br /><ul><li>Ectotherms – bask and hide to regulate temperature*
  74. 74. Scaly, waterproof skin
  75. 75. Respire through lungs only**
  76. 76. Internal fertilization
  77. 77. Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous (depending on species)
  78. 78. 3 or 4 chambered heart
  79. 79. Nitrogenous waste is a paste rather than a liquid for water conservation; uric acid
  80. 80. Extinct reptiles include dinosaurs and pterosaurs, which dominated the Earth during the Triassic period</li></li></ul><li>Major extant groups of reptiles:<br />Squamata – snakes & lizards<br /><ul><li>both snakes and lizards shed their skin as they grow
  81. 81. Loss of legs is unique to snakes within the reptiles; remnants of pelvic girdles present in boas, as are external claws on the abdomen
  82. 82. many have unique adaptations for life as predators
  83. 83. Jacobson’s organ – when a snake flicks its tongue it is collecting molecules that are then brought in to Jacobson’s organ for “processing”; kind of a combined sense of taste and smell
  84. 84. Pits – many snakes have heat sensory organs on their head that gives an IR picture of an organism, decreasing dependency on vision
  85. 85. Hollow fangs – with or without poison glands for capturing, holding, and killing prey
  86. 86. Muscles the length of the body allow it to move quickly and many use those muscles for immobilizing and strangling prey</li></li></ul><li>Major extant groups of reptiles: (cont’d)<br />Testudines – turtles and tortoises<br />* Some are herbivorous, but most are carnivorous<br /><ul><li>Lay eggs on land (oviparous)
  87. 87. Cloaca is secondary respiratory surface in aquatic species **
  88. 88. Shell is part of the body, connected to muscle and intimately intertwined with the skeleton</li></li></ul><li>Major extant groups of reptiles: (cont’d)<br />gharial<br />crocodiles<br />Crocodilia – alligators and crocodiles (caiman, and other related species)<br /><ul><li>Adapted for aquatic life with upturned nostrils and eyes on top of head
  89. 89. endothermic*
  90. 90. 4-chambered heart
  91. 91. Related to feathered reptiles</li></ul>American alligator<br />
  92. 92. Bird Vocabulary<br />Feather – modified scale used for flight and insulation (contour and down)<br />Keel – sternum modified for flight muscle attachment<br />Ratite – flightless birds<br />Beak – adaptation to the diet of a bird; cranial structure used for feeding and defense<br />Air sac – pocket attached to the lungs that aid the bird in maintaining constant air flow into the lungs, allowing for flight at high altitudes and greater muscle use<br />Preen gland - gland located on the base of the tail, especially in aquatic birds, that produces oil for waterproofing the feathers<br />Crop – portion of esophagus used for temporary storage of food<br />Gizzard – chamber of the stomach for grinding food<br />
  93. 93. Birds are reptiles<br />
  94. 94. Class Aves<br />Birds<br /><ul><li>Endothermic
  95. 95. 4 chambered heart
  96. 96. Internal fertilization
  97. 97. Oviparous
  98. 98. Amniotic eggs with calcerous, hard shells
  99. 99. Cloaca
  100. 100. Nitrogenous waste paste-like for water conservation; uric acid
  101. 101. Beaks and claws modified for specific niche
  102. 102. Classified as reptiles by many taxonomists
  103. 103. Digestive system modified for diet, including crop & gizzard</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Many modifications for flight:
  104. 104. Only organism with feathers (modified scales) for flight and insulation
  105. 105. Evolutionarily may have began as courtship or defensive displays (behavioral adaptation, rather than for flight)
  106. 106. Hollow bones - make bird lightweight
  107. 107. Front limbs modified into wings
  108. 108. Air sacs to aid in breathing at high altitudes
  109. 109. Unique muscle tissue for sustained, intense use
  110. 110. Keel – modified breastbone for muscle attachment</li></ul>Birds migrate – move long distances on a seasonal cycle to reach mating and/or feeding grounds<br />
  111. 111. 8600 species of birds in 28 orders<br /><ul><li>Flightless birds called ratites – emu, ostrich, kiwi
  112. 112. Penguins have wings modified for swimming
  113. 113. Aquatic birds have preen gland to keep their feathers from becoming saturated, impeding flight
  114. 114. Most birds are passeriformes – perching birds, including jays, swallows, sparrows, and warblers (see pp. 790 & 91 in your text for more groups of birds)</li></ul>Bird courtship and mating behaviors are an evolutionary adaptation unique to each species<br />Many other groups of birds, including birds of prey, marine birds, seed eaters, woodpeckers, hummingbirds, etc<br />
  115. 115. Mammal Vocabulary<br />Mammary gland – gland adapted to produce protein and fat rich nutrition for offspring during early development <br />Hair – keratinous growth for insulation, camouflage, and display; made of same material as reptilian scales and bird feathers<br />Fat – layer of connective tissue for insulation and padding; energy reserve<br />Diaphragm – sheet of muscle separating thoracic and abdominal cavities used in respiration<br />Monotreme – mammal that lays eggs<br />Marsupial – mammal with young that finish developing in a pouch<br />Marsupium – pouch in a marsupial<br />Placental – mammal whose young develop in a uterus attached to a placenta<br />Uterus – muscular organ that houses the fetus until birth<br />Placenta – extraembryonic tissues that develop as a connection between the circulatory system of the mother and that of the developing fetus<br />Dentition – tooth pattern; varies with diet; ex) reptilian dentition is characteristically uniform conical teeth for capturing prey, mammalian dentition varies significantly (carnivores, herbivores, insectivores, baleen, omnivores)<br />
  116. 116. Class Mammalia<br />Humans, bears, pigs, horses, dogs, cats, whales, elephants, mice, koalas, platypus<br /><ul><li>Endothermic – hair and layer of fat aid in conserving heat
  117. 117. Hair – keratinous protein that aids in insulation
  118. 118. Mammary glands – produce milk to feed offspring
  119. 119. Internal fertilization
  120. 120. 2 species of monotreme; oviparous
  121. 121. Marsupials and placentals are viviparous
  122. 122. Diaphragm for increased respiration & spongy lungs for increased surface area
  123. 123. 4-chambered heart
  124. 124. Dentition & jaw structure reflect diet
  125. 125. Inner ear contains 3 bones for improved hearing
  126. 126. Large brain; learn; Extended parental care
  127. 127. Most effective kidney for water conservation; urea</li></li></ul><li>Evolutionary advances in jaw structure, dentition, and inner ear structure from reptile to mammal<br />
  128. 128. 3 categories of mammals<br />1. Monotremes<br /> - mammals that lay eggs, have hair, and produce milk with mammary glands<br /> - mother produces milk which is excreted from glands on the abdomen and the babies lap up the milk or suck it off the fur of the mother<br />Echidna and platypus<br />Platypus has a cartilaginous bill used to find food on the bottom of a pond or river.<br />Males have poisonous spurs on their hind feet for defense<br />Platypi store fat in their beaver-like tails<br />
  129. 129. Marsupials<br /> - embryo develops in a uterus with a placenta<br />Immature fetus is born into a pouch called a marsupium.<br />Young develop in marsupium, attached to a teat, until much more mature. <br />All marsupials live in Australia with the exception of the opossum, which can be found in the Americas.<br />
  130. 130. Interesting Evolutionary Note<br />Marsupials and placentals show parallel evolution<br />
  131. 131. Placentals<br />Placental mammals develop in a uterus attached to a placenta until at a comparably advanced stage of development<br />Widespread on earth – found in every major biome, including marine, arctic, and tundra.<br />Many orders of placental mammals. 10 discussed as follows:<br />
  132. 132. Orders of Placental Mammals<br />Rodentia- razor sharp teeth (rats, squirrels)<br />Lagomorpha- fused hind leg bones (rabbits)<br />Chiroptera- flying mammals (bats)<br />Carnivora- eat meat (lions, tigers, wolves)<br />Cetacea- Blow holes to breathe (dolphins, whales)<br />Insectivora- eat insects (moles, shrews, hedgehog)<br />Artiodactyla- even # of toes (cows, sheep, goat, pigs, hippos, camels)<br />Perissodactyla- odd # of toes (horse, zebra, rhino)<br />Proboscidea- trunks (elephants)<br />Primates- opposable thumbs (apes, monkeys, humans)<br />
  133. 133. Order Primates<br />Prosimians – lorises, lemurs, tarsiers<br />Monkeys – New World Old World<br />Prehensile tails<br />
  134. 134.                      <br />                     <br /> Apes Humans<br />Gibbon Orangutan<br />Gorilla Chimpanzee <br />