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Phylum Porifera                  1
Phylum Porifera•   Multicellular•   Body with pores (ostia)•   No organs or true tissues.•   No nervous system•   Adults s...
Phylum Porifera•   Composed of 3 layers     – outer layer of flattened contractile cells (pinacocytes)     – inner non-liv...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Simple Sponge Morphology      ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Sponge Body Forms             ...
6
Spicule    • Skeleton of sponge      – Calcium carbonate      – Silicon      – Collagen                            7
Archeocyte     • Amoeboid cells     • Receive food from       choanocytes     • Differentiate into other       cell types ...
Sclerocyte     • Produce spicules                          9
Mesenchyme (Mesoglea)      • Gelantinous matrix                             10
Pinococyte     • Outer surface of       sponge     • Contractile                          11
Choanocyte     • Flagellated cells     • One end in       mesnchyme     • Flagella creates water       currents     • Coll...
Porocyte    • Forms a pore                     13
Asconoid Sponge    Osculum  Spongocoel     Ostium    Porocyte                  14
Fig. 12.5            15
Syconoid Sponge                  Osculum                            SpongocoelIncurrent Canal                             ...
Fig. 12.7            17
Syconoid Sponge         Scypha (Grantia) xs                               Spongocoel                               Radial ...
Leuconoid Sponge                  Osculum                    Excurrent canal Incurrent poreIncurrent canal   Choanocyte   ...
Class Calcarea    Grantia        • Small        • Vase shape        • Spicules of calcium          carbonate              ...
Class Hexactinellida      Euplectella            • Spicules               – Siliceous               – 6 rays              ...
Class Demospongiae      Spongia          • Spicules            – Siliceous            – spongin                          22
23
Physiology• Large sponges filter  1500 liters/day• Choanocytes  phagocytize• Archeocytes digest• No respiratory,  excretor...
Sexual Reproduction• Monoecious   – Both male and female• Sperm and egg derived from choanocytes• Ciliated larva   – Swim ...
Asexual Reproduction                  MicropyleBudding              SpiculeFragmentationGemmule formation   -survive freez...
Porifera Platyhelmithes Mollusca Arthropoda                                     Echinodermata Hemichordata    Cnidaria   N...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Hypothesis of Multicellularity...
CO 12   The        End              29
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Zoology- Phylum Porifera

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Zoology- Phylum Porifera

  1. 1. Phylum Porifera 1
  2. 2. Phylum Porifera• Multicellular• Body with pores (ostia)• No organs or true tissues.• No nervous system• Adults sessile & attached to substratum.• Skeleton of calcareous spicules, siliceous spicules, spongin or a combination.• All aquatic, mostly marine. 2
  3. 3. Phylum Porifera• Composed of 3 layers – outer layer of flattened contractile cells (pinacocytes) – inner non-living mesoglea containing a variety of specialized cells – collar cells (choanocytes) which capture food, etc. from water flowing through channels.• Exhibit asymmetry or radial symmetry.• Reproduction - asexual by buds & gemmules. Sexual by eggs & sperm. 3
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Simple Sponge Morphology 4
  5. 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Sponge Body Forms 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Spicule • Skeleton of sponge – Calcium carbonate – Silicon – Collagen 7
  8. 8. Archeocyte • Amoeboid cells • Receive food from choanocytes • Differentiate into other cell types 8
  9. 9. Sclerocyte • Produce spicules 9
  10. 10. Mesenchyme (Mesoglea) • Gelantinous matrix 10
  11. 11. Pinococyte • Outer surface of sponge • Contractile 11
  12. 12. Choanocyte • Flagellated cells • One end in mesnchyme • Flagella creates water currents • Collar traps food • Passes food to archeocyte 12
  13. 13. Porocyte • Forms a pore 13
  14. 14. Asconoid Sponge Osculum Spongocoel Ostium Porocyte 14
  15. 15. Fig. 12.5 15
  16. 16. Syconoid Sponge Osculum SpongocoelIncurrent Canal Radial Canal Ostium Choanocytes 16
  17. 17. Fig. 12.7 17
  18. 18. Syconoid Sponge Scypha (Grantia) xs Spongocoel Radial CanalIncurrent Canal Choanocytes Ostium 18
  19. 19. Leuconoid Sponge Osculum Excurrent canal Incurrent poreIncurrent canal Choanocyte chamber 19
  20. 20. Class Calcarea Grantia • Small • Vase shape • Spicules of calcium carbonate – Straight or 3-4 rays 20
  21. 21. Class Hexactinellida Euplectella • Spicules – Siliceous – 6 rays 21
  22. 22. Class Demospongiae Spongia • Spicules – Siliceous – spongin 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. Physiology• Large sponges filter 1500 liters/day• Choanocytes phagocytize• Archeocytes digest• No respiratory, excretory or nervous systems 24
  25. 25. Sexual Reproduction• Monoecious – Both male and female• Sperm and egg derived from choanocytes• Ciliated larva – Swim to new location 25
  26. 26. Asexual Reproduction MicropyleBudding SpiculeFragmentationGemmule formation -survive freezing 26
  27. 27. Porifera Platyhelmithes Mollusca Arthropoda Echinodermata Hemichordata Cnidaria Nemertea Annelida Lophophores Chordata PrecambrianProtozoans Before 670 MYA 27
  28. 28. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Hypothesis of Multicellularity 28
  29. 29. CO 12 The End 29

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