Animal Kingdom


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Animal Kingdom

  1. 1. T- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy
  2. 2. What is an animal? Kingdom Animalia divided into two major groups:– invertebrates– vertebratesWorm Snail Cockroach An invertebrate is an animal without abackbone. About 98 percent of all animals areinvertebrates.Invertebrate
  3. 3. Vertebrates Only about two percent of all animals are vertebrateswhich belong to the Phylum Chordata. Vertebrates include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, andmammals.BirdFrog RatAnimals share the following characteristics:1. Animals are multi cellular and have eukaryotic cells.2. Animal cells lack cell walls.3. Animals have a period of embryonic development.4. Animals are consumers.5. Animals can move.6. Most animals have muscle and nervous tissue.7. Animals are diploid.
  4. 4.  Animals have different levels of organization. Some animals consist of cells with a few tissue layers. Others are complex with organ systems. All animals have sex cells that are haploid and areproduced by meiosis. All animal life cycles consist of haploid and diploid celldevelopment.
  5. 5. Animal body plan and Symmetry The arrangement of an animal’s body parts is called itssymmetry. Animals that do not have an orderly body plan, likesponges, are called asymmetrical. Radial symmetry means that the body parts are arrangedin a circle around a central point. In bilateral symmetry, the body consists of two similarhalves.
  6. 6.  The gut is the digestive tract. It enables an animal to digest foodoutside of its cells. In animals without a gut (likesponges), food is digested inside oftheir cells. Complex animals also have a bodycavity that holds the gut and otherorgans. The body cavity provides an openspace for organs to grow andfunction.
  7. 7.  As animals evolved and became more complex, theydeveloped organ systems to perform basic functions.Organ Systems Some important organ systems are:– Skeletal– Muscular– Circulatory– Digestive– Nervous– Reproductive Sponges belong to the PhylumPorifera (“pore bearing.”) They are asymmetrical and do nothave a body cavity.Sponges
  8. 8.  Adult sponges do not move around. They feed by pulling water into thepores of their bodies and filtering outfood particles. They have specialized collar cells thatmove water and collect and digest food.Cnidarians The Phylum Cnidarians includesjellyfish, coral, sea anemones, andhydra. They have radial symmetry and donot have a body cavity. Cnidarians have differentiated cellsthat are organized into two layers oftissues and nerves that form anetwork. Many cnidarians have specializedstinging cells to capture food ordefend themselves.
  9. 9. Flatworms Planarians belong to the Phylum Platy helminthes—theflatworms. Flatworms are the simplest animals having bilateral symmetry. They have a sac-like gut but no body cavity. Planarians secrete digestiveenzymes onto their food and suckthe food particles through anorgan called a pharynx. They digest food in a gastrovascular cavity.Roundworms Members of the Phylum Nematode arecalled roundworms. Roundworms are the simplest animalswith a complete gut that runs frommouth to anus.
  10. 10. Annelids Earthworms belong to the Phylum Annelida. All annelids have bodies that are divided into individualsegments. Annelids have bilateral symmetry and a true body cavity.
  11. 11. Mollusks Snails, clams, and squids are allmembers of the Phylum Mollusca. Mollusks have bilateral symmetry and atrue body cavity. The body of a mollusk typically has afoot, gut, mantle, and shell.Body of a mollusk
  12. 12. Mollusks Clams and their relatives have a simple nervous system withnerve cords and a few ganglia. Octopi and their relatives have a more advanced nervoussystem. An octopus has a well-developed brain and eyes. Most mollusks have a sense of touch and taste.Arthropods The Phylum Arthropod includesinsects, spiders, and crustaceans suchas lobsters and crabs. Arthropods have segmentedbodies, jointed limbs, anexoskeleton, and well-developed organsystems. Like annelids, arthropod bodies are segmented. Some segments form three distinct regions: ahead, a thorax, and an abdomen.
  13. 13. Echinoderms The Phylum Echinodermata (meaning “spinyskin”) includes starfish, sea urchins, and seacucumbers. Echinoderms have radial symmetry, a bodycavity, an internal skeleton, and spiny skin. Echinoderms have a specialized watervascular system. The water vascular system is a network offluid-filled canals connected to hundreds oftiny, tube-like feet. The water vascular system helps them moveand capture food.
  14. 14. Vertebrate structure and function Humans and sea squirts are members of thePhylum Chordata (called chordates). All chordates have a structure called anotochord. A notochord is a flexible, rod-shapedstructure found in the embryos of allchordates.Characteristics of vertebrates All vertebrates have a backbone and a skull. The backbone is a segmented column ofinterlocking bones called vertebrae. All vertebrates have an internal skeleton forsupport, protection, and a place for muscles tobe attached. The bones and muscles of vertebrates worktogether to provide a structural framework formovement.
  15. 15.  All vertebrates have a body cavity thatholds the organ systems.– The thoracic cavity holds the heart and thelungs of air-breathing vertebrates.– The abdominal cavity holds the digestiveorgans including the stomach, intestines, andliver.Vertebrate organs are made of four typesof tissues An organ is a group of tissues thatfunction together. Vertebrate organs are made of fourtypes of tissues:– nervous– epithelial– connective– muscle
  16. 16. Fish Fish are exothermic, aquatic vertebrates withfins, gills, and a streamlined body. They were the first vertebrates, and evolved about 500million years ago. There are three classes offish living today.– jawless fish– cartilaginous fish– bony fish
  17. 17. Amphibians Amphibians areectothermic, smooth-skinnedvertebrates, such as frogs andsalamanders, that usuallyhatch as an aquatic larva withgills.Birds Birds are endothermic, egg-laying vertebrates with forelimbsmodified to form wings. They have many adaptations forflight such asfeathers, wings, hollowbones, and air sacs.
  18. 18.  Mammals are endothermic vertebrates that have mammaryglands. Mammary glands are organs that produce a nutritious fluidcalled milk.Mammals Mammals evolved from a now-extinctgroup of reptiles called therapsids. The earliest true mammals appearedover 200 million years ago.
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