10 8 all handouts animal diversity 2010 jewett edit
Meaning of scientific name
Literally – “jointed feet”
Broadest group of living things in the world – 2/3 of all living creatures
Since they are so many species – there was no defined uniting group; from 1996 arthropoda are
o Hard exoskeleton
o Jointed segments
o Pair of appendages at each one
o Open circulatory system
o Lack balance – rely on their eyes
Mostly sexual reproduction; only some are “self-sufficient”
How do they avoid predation
Almost all have hard chitin cover
It protects them from harm
Most have other “weapons”: venom, pincers, pedipalps
Black Widow Horseshoe Crab
Males about half the female's size Have very hard chitin cover
Most deadly in North America Legs for both swimming and walking
Web is shapeless and very tough Found on sea bottom hunting for
Usually eats her mate after reproduction worms and mollusks
Have antennae and ovipositors
Big hind legs – jumping
Two pair of wings – flying
Human uses and interactions
Cary diseases; feed on crops we produce
Make honey and take part in our meals
Provide chemicals for medical studies
1. Arthropods – with jointed feet
2. Book lungs – stacked palette structures for gas exchange
3. Mandibles – jaw-like appendages
4. Incomplete metamorphosis – only resemble adults, have no wings
5. Complete metamorphosis – have pupal stage and become adults
6. Isopods – with symmetric leg number
7. Decapods – have calcium carbonate in addition to chitin
8. Chitin – protein which gives strength to the outer layer of arthropod
9. Open circulatory system – no real veins or blood transport chains
10. Antennae - paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods
11. Ovipositor – organ used for laying eggs
March 21, 2010
• bivalves: class of mollusks characterized by having a compressed body within two shells;
include most clams
• gastropods: class of mollusks characterized by the developmental process called torsion;
include snails and slugs
• chitons: class of mollusks characterized by having a flattened oval body with a shell of
overlapping plates; include various small mollusks found on the shore of the sea
• cephalopods: class of predatory mollusks that use tentacles to grasp prey, have a distinct head
with large eyes and a beaked mouth; include octopi and squids
• torsion: the twisting of the visceral mass up to 180 degrees as an embryo
• radula: a rasp-like feeding organ that utilizes a scraping technique to draw food into the mouth
• visceral mass: mass containing most of the internal organs
• mantle: a tissue fold that covers the visceral mass and may secrete a shell
• mantle cavity: a water-filled chamber occurring when the mantle extends beyond the visceral
• foot: a muscular organ that is used for movement
Characteristics & Origin
Latin meaning of mollusca is soft.
The mollusca group has unique qualities: they are soft-bodied animals, but in order to protect their
bodies they have a hard shell made of calcium carbonate. They either have a small internal shell or
don’t have one at all.
Most members are marine, but exceptions such as slugs live on land.
The last common ancestors of humans and mollusks are the Bilateria. They have bilateral symmetry,
either horizontal or vertical. Mollusks are most similar to the Rotifera and the Nematoda phylums.
Mollusks have food openings - mouths. Most of them contain a radula, a rasp-like feeding organ. It
consists of a set of backward-curved teeth, and helps to move the food into the mouth. To digest, the
mollusks use internal organs: a stomach and a long digestive tract, which ends with another opening
from where the leftovers escape, the anus.
Most mollusks have a very strong external shell to secure it from predators. Cephalopods have only an
internal shell, but their foot has developed into a muscular excurrent siphon that allows them to draw
water and then jet propel themselves with it In addition, octopi use melanin based ink to blind and
disorient possible predators.
Most mollusks have a muscular foot, on which they rely for moving around. Squids and octopi use a
mechanism of jet propulsion to move around. Snails and slugs make small rippling movements with
Squids, octopi, clams, cuttlefish and snails are used for food. Snails and slugs are also pests because
they feed on plants. In addition, pearls are extracted from clams.
• Giant squid (Architeuthis dux)
The largest mollusk and one of the largest animals found on Earth today. Most are 12-13 meters long and
weigh 400-500 kg, with the females having more impressive dimensions than the males. Are found in the
North and South Atlantic and Pacific, with lack of the species in tropical areas. Prey upon deep-sea fishes
and smaller squid species; are preyed upon by some whale and shark species. Use their tentacles to attack
and immobilize their victims.
• Giant clam (Tridacna gigas)
200kg, 1.2m, 100 year lifespan. Found in the warm waters of the Pacific & Indian oceans. Hermaphrodites
that send out eggs and sperm. When two from different organisms meet, they form an egg. The egg quickly
develops into a larva that then moves around to find a place to live. Finally their front muscle is completely
reduced and the rear moves to the center. Giant clams produce giant pearls that are worthless for humans;
sometimes divers’ legs or arms get caught in them and the wounds are often fatal or lead to amputation.
• South African giant slug (Arion subfucsus)
Slugs undergo torsion - twisting of visceral mass up to 180 degrees causing its anus and mantle cavity to go
above its head. These species live in South Africa, Australia and North America. They are gigantic,
reaching 20 to 30 cm. Like other slugs, they feed on plants.
By Miryana Kostadinova
Who are the Amphibians?
•The scientific name
–Comes from Greek: (amphi – dual, bios – life) meaning both, two ways of life.
–The amphibians have four limbs descended from modified fins. Their skin is moist
in most cases and functions in gas exchange. Many amphibians live both in water (as
larvae) and on land (as adults).
–Amphibians have bilateral symmetry.
The Evolutionary Tree
•How does this phylum fit into the evolutionary tree (cladogram)?
–Most closely related to Reptiles and Mammals (same phylum Chrodata)
–Shared a common ancestor with humans 550 million years ago
1. Structure of skin:
mucus glands, poison glands, major role in respiration
2. Sensory organ in inner ear
3. Bones involved intransmitting sounds to inner ear
4. Green rods:
distinct retinal cell
5. Teeth have a crown and base
6. Bulging eyes
–the male grasps the female, stimulating her to release eggs
–the male then spills sperm over the eggs, fertilizing them
•Takes place typically in water or moist land environments (the eggs lack a shell and
dehydrate quickly in air)
•Some species lay many eggs, and yet a lot of them die
•Others may lay fewer eggs, but take close care for them (carry them on their back, in
their mouth, stomach, or in nests)
•Many exhibit curious and complex social behaviour during the breeding season:
– Male frogs “sing”, as a way to defend their territory, or to attract females.
•Life cycle – metamorphosis (from Greek meta – “change”, “mophe” – form)
•Amphibians in captivity – around 20 yrs
•Amphibians in nature – 10 to 40 yrs
•Reach maturity at 3-4 yrs
•Female amphibian – thousands of eggs, but many die or are destroyed by predators
•Fertilized egg – tadpole (lavre) – adult amphibian
•Egg – 1-4 mm
•Tadpole stage (several weeks – 1 year)
•Urodele larva: long and slender, with limbs, three pairs of gills, large mouths
•Anuran larva: short trunks, small mouth openings, lack lungs, eyelids, jaws, legs.
•Gymnophion larva: llimbless, slender, have distinctive gills.
•For some amphibians – their whole life (neoteny)
•gill breathers – lung breathers.
•plant eaters – meat eaters.
–Generally move by jumping
–Tibia, fibula, and tarsals: transformed into one single very strong bone
–Radius and ulna: transformed into one bone in order to absorb the impact from
landing. 17 % from the mass of frogs are muscles that help for the jumping ability.
•Urdolela (Salamanders): swimming or movement by their four legs.
•Gymnophiona (Caecilians): have skull that has very hard fused bones helping the animal
to move through the soil. There is a connective tissue that collects the power from the
muscles in the body and sends it to the front in order to have greater power to break
through the soil.
•Amphibians are used for medical purposes:
–An oil called "Ha Shi Ma Yu," is used to cure nervous exhaustion.
–Teas made from dried and powdered hynobiid salamanders have been used to cure
bone fractures and malaria. Amphibians are very important for medicine
manufacturing all over the world.
–Alkaloid named Epibatidine is used to reduce pain. It is 200 times stronger than
morphine but it is not addictive.
glands that are located behind the eyes make two very important
substances:bufogenin and bufotoxin, that strongly affect the adrenal and
•Many people eat the legs of the frogs that have great protein supply.
•Order Anura - lose their tail as adults.
•Dendrobatidae frogs - poisonous, and (mostly) brightly colored
•The Golden Poison Dart Frog (Phyllobates terribilis): the most poisons frog in the
•It inhabits the lowland rainforests at the Pacific coast of Columbia
•Around 47mm in length – one of the largest poisonous frogs
•A frog may hold up to 1900µg of toxins - enough to kill 10,000 rats or 7 or more humans
•Benefit in the poison: contains a component 1000 times more efficient than Morphine in
•They have virtually no predators apart from humans because of the poison and
– the female lays her eggs on the ground
–after the fertilization both parents look after them until they are hatched
–the male transports the tadpoles to the pool where they will be left to grow up
Order Urodela (Salamanders)
•Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum): the largest representative of the
•Generally found in ponds, small lakes or slow moving streams in grassy cover
•Colorful skin, costal grooves along their sides, protruding eyes, large head
•Around 33 cm in length
•Adults eat any small animal that can be captured and swallowed. Larvae eat aquatic
invertebrates and vertebrates
•Prey for larger animals
•Larvae metamorphose in their first or second summer, if not they spend their whole life
as larvae (neoteny)
Order Gymnophia (Caecilians)
•Mexican Burrowing Caecilian (Dermophis Mexicanus): Caecilian family
•Found in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Belize. It inhabits
subtropical and tropical dry forests.
•Mostly eats earthworms and other invertebrates with soft bodies. Also, small frogs,
lizards, and blind snakes are discovered to be part of the menu of this creature.
•The eyesight is very bad with these species, they have eyes that are so small that hardly
could be seen and many experiments show that they don’t react to light changes at all.
•As a whole, all Caecilians and Dermophis Mexicanus are very hard to be found because
they live inside the soil, after heavy rains they can be observed on the surface in large
numbers. They make their way through the soil by pushing with their head.
Do you know how big is the biggest frog?
•The Goliath frog (Conraua goliath) can reach up to 30 cm
•The Titicaca Lake frog (Telmatobius culeus) – up to 50cm
•Amphibians – a class of organisms who live both in water and on land
•Anura – an order of the Amphibia class (frogs)
•Urodela – an order of the Amphibia class (salamanders)
•Gymnophia – an order with legless representatives of the Amphibia class
•Methamorphosis – a stage of life where an organism changes its form
•Bilateral symmetry – symmetry when the two halves of sth on either side of a particular
line are exactly the same
•Tadpole – larva
•Gill – one of the openings on the side of a fish’s head that it breathes through
•Sexual Maturity – when an organism is ready to sexually reproduce
•Neoteny – a way of living your whole life as a larva
March 29, 2010
Animal Diversity Project- Reptiles
How does this phylum fit in the evolutionary tree?
- Chordata Phylum – includes the well-known vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, birds, reptiles,
- Vertebrates Subphylum
- Reptilia Class – includes all amniotes except birds and mammals (Reptiles are a paraphyletic group
– if birds were included it would be a monophyletic group (that includes all descendants of a particular
- Orders: Crocodilia (crocodiles, gavials, caimans, alligators)
Rhynchocephalia (tuataras from New Zealand)
Squamata (lizards, snakes, worm lizards)
Testudines (turtles, tortoises)
Common ancestor with humans – the claws of the reptiles and birds contain the same protein to the one
in human hair and nails. The origins of hair date back to 310-330 million years ago to the last common
ancestor of mammals, birds, and reptiles.
Scientific name – Reptilia (Latin: repere – “to creep”)
Derived characteristics – cold-blooded; scales that cover their body;
Bilateral Symmetry – their body has two equal parts that are symmetrical when compared along a
Facts about Reptiles:
- They are found on every continent except Antarctica;
- They have existed for more than 300 million years;
- There are more than 8000 reptile species;
- They don’t have fur or feathers;
- Three-chambered hearts;
- Most of them lay eggs, which are protected by a leathery shell – amnion;
- Waterproof skin;
- The extinct dinosaurs were reptiles;
- They are among the longest living species on Earth;
2. How do they move?
Their walk is similar to mammalian walk – front and back legs move in opposition. However, in a
reptile walk, the animal's low center of gravity forces the spine and torso to bend much more than in a
mammal. Despite the awkward motion, some reptiles are capable of moderate speeds. Snakes don’t
have limbs – they move by slithering along the ground. Some lizards can lift their front legs of the
ground when running.
3. How do they reproduce?
Most reptiles reproduce sexually, though some are capable of asexual reproduction. A reptile
reproduces sexually with the female's eggs being fertilized by the male internally. The eggs, which
have a leathery surface, are then carefully deposited. Asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis) is
identified in six families of lizards and in one snake. Reptiles can be oviparous (that lay eggs) and
viviparous (that bear live young). A female that lay eggs is called gravid (otherwise called pregnant).
4. How do they obtain food? How do they digest?
Most reptiles are carnivorous, so they hunt down their food. They digest slower than in mammals.
Large reptiles like crocodiles can live from a single large meal for months, digesting it slowly. Today
turtles are the only herbivorous reptile group. Most snakes can dislocate their jaw in order to swallow
prey much larger than themselves.
Some representatives are the Anaconda (the heaviest snake), the Galapagos Tortoise (the longest living
tortoise), and the Komodo dragon (the largest lizard).
King Cobra (Ophiophagus Hannah) Ophiophagus means “snake-
eater”. King Cobras are the longest venomous snakes in the world and can
reach 5.4 meters. They can lift 1/3 of their body. Depending on where they
live, they vary in color. They can be brown, yellow, black and green. They
shed their skin 4-6 times a year. They are more intelligent than other cobras
and can even recognize their caretakers. They live for 20 years. They are
usually found throughout Southeast Asia, in rainforests, swamps, savannas,
and even human settlements. They usually eat non-venomous snakes and
lizards. They hunt their food by smelling the air with their forked tongue.
King Cobras’ venom is very strong and can cause death very shortly. They,
however, are the most attractive highlights in the zoos.
Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Green Sea Turtles are the largest
hard-shelled sea turtles in the world – they can reach 6 feet in length. They
are called Green Sea Turtles because of the color of their flesh, which is
green due to their eating algae. They reach sexual maturity very slowly – it
can take up to 50 years. They are found in warm tropical oceans, in warm,
shallow water. The only time they leave the water is when females come on
shore to nest. They eat sea grasses, algae and crabs. They are considered a threatened species in the United
American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) The American Alligator Is the largest reptile in North
America. It can reach up to 4.5 meters. It is found primarily in freshwater
swamps, but also in rivers and lakes. Juveniles eat small invertebrates.
Adults can attack almost any prey within range. They rarely attack children
and adults, and when they do it, it’s because they are provoked, or because
they have confused them for smaller prey. In some areas growing alligator
population causes problem with human population. They start to breed in
6. Human uses and interactions:
Lizards and snakes used as pets;
Reptiles used as food in some cultures (considered delicacies);
Many snakes are poisonous;
Crocodiles and alligators are also dangerous for people;
7. Interesting Facts
- Less than 2 percent of the snakes are harmful to humans
- If a snake is born with two heads, its both heads fight each other for
-The Egyptians used crocodile dung as the first contraceptive in human history in 2000 B.C.
-Amazingly, the distance between an alligator’s eyes, in inches, is directly proportional to the length of
the alligator in feet.
-Interestingly, turtles were present on earth before the dinosaurs.
1. Amniotes – any of a group of vertebrates whose eggs are protected by an extra membrane –
2. Oviparous – reptiles that lay eggs (oviposition – the act of laying eggs);
3. Viviparous – reptiles that bear live young;
4. Gravid – a female that lays eggs (otherwise is called pregnant);
5. Cold-blooded - having a body temperature that varies with that of the surroundings;
6. Carnivore - a flesh-eating animal;
7. Herbivore – an animal that feeds on plants;
8. Bilateral symmetry – an organism’s body possesses two equal parts that are symmetrical
when compared on either side of a midline;
9. Tuatara – a reptile unique to New Zealand;
10. Parthenogenesis – asexual reproduction;
March 22, 2010
• The word mammal comes from the Latin mamma, meaning breast. This is derived from milk
production in females for their young and females are characterized by the possession of
• Mammals have a bilateral symmetry
• Aves (Birds) are most closely related to Mammalia. Humans are a part of this clade with
the last distinction being between Australopithecus and Homo sapiens
• Derived characteristics:
The most obvious derived characteristic of mammals is the mammary gland, which gives them
their name. It is present in both female and male specimens, however it only fully develops in female
and it allows them to secrete milk from their nipples so they can provide their babies with much
needed substances such as proteins, sugars, fat and other.
Hair is another derived characteristic of mammals. All mammals have hair on at least some part of
their body. Hair is actually cell stems reinforced with keratin. It can be seen in several forms including
fur, horns, or whiskers.
The final derived characteristic of mammals is the presence of three middle ear bones – the malleus,
incus, and stapes that evolved from the jaw of the ancestors of mammals. These bones are commonly
referred to as the hammer, and the anvil, and the stirrup. They transfer vibrations from the eardrum to
the inner ear and transform them into neural impulses.
• Obtaining and digesting food:
There are both herbivores and carnivores in mammals; however, both receive food from another
from of life rather than producing it themselves. The digestion includes complex chemical processes
facilitated by the digestive system.
The way of moving depends on their habitats. There are both quadrapedal and bipedal mammals
in that some move on four and others on two legs. The biology of their movement is greatly varied
as well but all of them really on energy stored in muscles and tendons.
• Nervous system:
The nervous system of a mammal is based on the brain and the spinal cord, which receive signals
from the rest of the body through nerve endings (or receptors). In the brain neurotransmitters send
a signal to allow all mammals to feel pain or other sensory information.
The nervous system is divided into four main parts: the central nervous system, the peripheral
nervous system, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. Each of the
parts has a different function that allows adequate reaction to the world.
1. Lion (Panthera Leo)
• Two types based on the place of habitat: Asiatic and African
• Asiatic – used to inhabit areas from Asia Minor and Arabia to Persia and India; smaller that
African lions; have long folds of skin on their undersides
• African – today inhabits parts of southern and eastern Africa that are being conserved; less than
23,000 in Africa
• Eating habits – carnivorous; usually eat large mammals like antelopes, gazelles,
warthogs, wildebeest, buffalos and zebras. An adult female lion needs about 5 kg
of meat/day, a male about 7 kg/day
• Locomotion - they walk, run, saunter, sashay.
• Eco role - Male = protect the pride and territory from other lions; Female = hunt
• Life cycle - The female gives birth to a litter of one to four cubs born blind with a mass of 1.2-2.1
kg. First, they start crawling and in three weeks they start walking Lions reach maturity at about 3
years of age while they begin to age and weaken between 10 and 15 years of age
The original purpose of lactation (milk production) is thought to have been to keep eggs moist.
2. Killer whales (Orcinus Orca) – referred to as orca and rarely - blackfish
• Habitat – in every ocean
• Eating habits – carnivorous; eat sea mammals like seals as well as fish
• Locomotion – they are very fast swimmers and they move through swimming
• Eco role – to hunt
• Life cycle – the female killer whale gives birth usually to only one orca and a case of twins is very
rare; it raises an average of five offspring and it lives an average of 50 years, 80-90 at most. Male
killer whales are ready to reproduce at the age of 21 and live an average of 29 years, 50-60 at most
• Interactions with humans – humans tend to avoid interactions with killer whales due to their big
size and eating habits; however, there are water parks where killer whales are held and perform
shows for the visitors
Orcas communicate with each other using distinctive calls. Each pod's group of "whale talk" sounds
is called a dialect.
Kangaroo or Macropus giganteus
• Habitat - Live in Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea.
• Gather in groups called mobs (2-3 individuals, up to 100)
• Eating habits - eats grass, young shoots and leaves of heath plants and grass trees; Capable of
going for months without drinking water
• Females are smaller, lighter, and faster than males
• They only respond to moving objects
• A kangaroo can reach speeds of over 56 km an hour and travel for long distances at 24 km an
hour. Their bounding gate allows them to cover 8 m in a single leap and to jump 1.8 m high.
• A great number of them are being killed every year for their skins and meat, which is becoming a
more popular human food.
• Usually there is one baby a year who remains in the pouch for nine months and continues to
suckle until twelve to seventeen months of age
• They are a symbol of Australia because they always move forward and never backward
Have great hearing and can rotate their ears in all directions to pick up sounds