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Kingdom Animalia

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Kingdom Animalia

  1. 1. KINGDOM ANIMALIA Characteristics of Animals January 16 th , 2007
  2. 2. Characteristics of Life <ul><li>1. Living things are organized. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Living things are made up of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Living things metabolize. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Living things maintain an internal environment. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Living things grow. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Living things respond. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Living things reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Living things evolve. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification <ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul>
  4. 4. Kingdom Animalia <ul><li>All animals are multicellular, mitochondrial heterotrophs—they have multiple cells with mitochondria and they rely on other organisms for their nourishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals ingest their food and then digest it in some kind of internal cavity. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Animal Species <ul><li>Somewhere around 9 or 10 million species of animals inhabit the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>About 800,000 species have been identified. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Animal Phyla <ul><li>Biologists recognize about 36 separate phyla within the Kingdom Animalia. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Phyla Web Page </li></ul>
  7. 7. Major Animal Phyla
  8. 8. Animal Movement <ul><li>Most animals are capable of complex and relatively rapid movement compared to plants and other organisms. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Animal Reproduction <ul><li>Most animals reproduce sexually, by means of differentiated haploid cells (eggs and sperm). </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals are diploid, meaning that the cells of adults contain two copies of the genetic material. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Animal Sizes <ul><li>Animals range in size from no more than a few cells (like the mesozoans) to organisms weighing many tons (like the blue whale). </li></ul>a mesozoan blue whale
  11. 11. Animal Habitats <ul><li>Most animals inhabit the seas, with fewer in fresh water and even fewer on land. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Animal Cells <ul><li>Animal cells, like all eukaryotic cells, have internal structures called organelles that serve specific functions for the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells lack the rigid cell walls that characterize plant cells. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Animal Cell Diagram
  14. 14. Animal Bodies <ul><li>The bodies of most animals (all except sponges) are made up of cells organized into tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Each tissue is specialized to perform specific functions. </li></ul><ul><li>In most animals, tissues are organized into even more specialized organs . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Animal Symmetry <ul><li>The most primitive animals are asymmetrical. </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidarians and echinoderms are radially symmetrical. </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals are bilaterally symmetrical. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Radial Symmetry <ul><li>…applies to forms that can be divided into similar halves by more than two planes passing through it. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals with radial symmetry are usually sessile, free-floating, or weakly swimming. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bilateral Symmetry <ul><li>Animals with bilateral symmetery are most well-suited for directional movement. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Radial vs. Bilateral Symmetry
  19. 19. Cephalization <ul><li>Bilateral Symmetry usually has led to cephalization—the process by which sensory organs and appendages became localized in the head end of animals. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Evolutionary Trends <ul><li>If we analyze the basic body plans of animals, we find that they illustrate evolutionary trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Four major “advances” (in order): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular body plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilaterally symmetrical body plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tube-within-a-tube” body plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coelomate body plan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 3 Major Bilateral Body Plans <ul><li>Acoelomates </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudocoelomates </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomates </li></ul><ul><li>Each plan consists of 3 cell layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm </li></ul>
  22. 23. Acoelomates <ul><li>These animals have no other cavity than the gut. </li></ul><ul><li>They are often called the “solid worms.” </li></ul>
  23. 24. Pseudocoelomates <ul><li>These animals have a body cavity (the pseudocoelom) which is not completely lined with mesoderm. </li></ul><ul><li>The “tube within a tube” body plan. </li></ul><ul><li>This category is also composed of mostly worms. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Coelomates <ul><li>These animals have a “true coelom” lined with mesodermal peritoneum. </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals are coelomate. </li></ul>

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