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Body Symmetry
&
Coelomate
Symmetrical
Acoelomate
no mesoderm
Pseudocoelomate
mesoderm attach to one side but
no cleavage
Coelomate
mesoderm cleavage with coelom inbetween
Segmented Body
Porifera (spongy)
•Asymmetric body
•Lack of body
organizaiton
Structure
•Spicules as
structural
component
•Choanocyte
for water flow
and feeding
Adaptive features
Gaseous exchange diffusion
Nutrition Choanocyte filtering
Support water
Fertilization external
Embryo develop no
Movement no
Special features Asymmetical no mouth no anus
Introduction to
coelenterata
Radially symmetrical
Diploblastic
With nematocysts for food capture
and protection
No blood, respiratory, or excretory organs
A network of nerve cells and fibres exists
in body wall
Single internal cavity with only opening to
the exterior, the ‘mouth’ which is
surrounded by tentacles
Reproduction by assexual budding in polyp
stage, sexual reproduction by eggs and
sperm in medusa stage
Polyp and Medusa
• Polyp
• body is tubular or cylindrical
• oral end, bering the mouth and
tentacles, is directed upwards, and the
opposite, or aboral end is attached
• layer of mesoglea is thin
Polyp
 Medusa
 body resembles a bell or umbrella, with
the convex side upward and the mouth
located in the cneter of the concave
under-surface
 tentacles hang downwards from the
margin of the ‘bell’
 layer of mesoglea is extremely thick
Medusa
Adaptive features
Gaseous exchange diffusion
Nutrition Holozoic by nematocyst
Support water
Fertilization external
Embryo develop external
Movement Only in larva and medusa
Special features Nematocyst, polyp, medusa
Radial symmetrical, acoelomate
Nematoblasts
 Nematoblasts
1. they are in the ectoderm
2. each consists of highly complex
organelle, nematocyst, which is a
minute capsule filled with fluid and
containing a coiled, barbed thread tube
 when the triggering device, cnidocil, on
the outer surface of the nematoblast
is stimulated, the thread tube everts
to aid in capture of prey, protection or
locomotion
Morphology of Obelia
1. Classification
– Class Hydrozoa (hydroids)
2. Habitat
– lives in shallow coastal water attached to
substratum
 Morphology
– exists in 2distinctly different forms in its
life
– colonial form (polyps)
– free living form (medusa)
The colonial form
Medusa
Sea Anemone
Introduction
to Platyhelminthes
Triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical,
acoelomate and unsegmented
Body is flattened dorsoventrally
Digestive system incomplete –a
mouth but no anus
No skeletal, circulatory, or
respiratory systems; excretory
system of many flame cells joined to
excretory ducts
Nervous system primitively a simple
nerve net, but advanced forms have a
pair of anterior ganglia or a nerve
ring and 1 to3 pairs of longitudinal
nerve cords with transverse
connectives
Complex hermaphroditic
reproductive system; internal
fertilization; development either
direct or with 1 or more larval stages
Adaptive features
Gaseous exchange Flattened, diffusion
Nutrition Holozoic in planaria or parasitic
Support no
Fertilization Hermaphrodite
Embryo develop Egg external
Movement muscle
Special features Bilateral symmetrical, acoelomate
Planaria
1. Habitat
– the common planaria inhabit cool ,clear
permanent lakes and streams, where
they avoid light by clinging to the
under surface of stones or logs in the
water
Structure
Cross section
of body
Tapeworm
1. Habitat
– The adult stage lives in the small of its
primary host (e.g. man) i.e. it is an
endoparasite
– The immature stage lives inside the
body of the secondary host (e.g. pig)
Structure
Life Cycle
Nematoda
Adaptive features
Gaseous exchange diffusion
Nutrition Parasite, holozoic
Support no
Fertilization hermaphrodite
Embryo develop egg
Movement muscle
Special features Bilateral symmetrical, no segment
&
External view of an
earthworm
Introduction to annelids
Annelids…for example as earthworm
belong to the Phylum Annelida
are segmented worms showing metameric
segmentation
are coleomate animals
 have a fluid-filled body in which the gut and
other organs are suspended
are further classified into three classes:
polychaeta, oligochaeta, hirudinea
Body structure of
annelids
 enlarged coelom to accommodate more
complex internal organs.
 well-developed, fluid-filled coelom and
the tough integument act as a hydrostatic
skeleton.
 Closed circulatory system with blood
vessels running the length of the body and
branching into every segment
 nervous system consists of a brain
connected to a ventral solid nerve cord,
with a ganglion in each segment
 complete digestive system including a
pharynx, stomach, intestine, and accessory
glands
 excretory nephridia in each segment to
collect waste material from coelom and
excrete it through the body wall
Anatomy of a typical annelid,
earthworm
Cross section of through the earthworm
body
Adaptive features
Gaseous exchange Diffusion through skin
Nutrition Holozoic, debris feeder
Support hydroskeleton
Fertilization Internal, hermaphrodite but mate
Embryo develop External, cocoon
Movement Muscle, chaetae
Special features Coelomate, segmented,
Morphology of an earth worm
Earthworms belong to the oligochaeta class.
 They are hermaphroditic with both male and
female gonads.
 The mesoderm of an earthworm splits into
outer and inner layer with coelom in between
which allows:
- space for development of organs
- development of hydrostatic skeleton for
support and movement
- for independent movement of body wall and gut
Metameric segmentation of earthworms
allows for:
- specialization of different body parts
- division of labour
- muscular body wall divides into blocks to
provide independent movement of different
parts of the body
Earthworms have hydroskeletons to maintain
the body shape
Muscles of body wall acts on coelomic fluid
to bring about locomotion, support and
protection
Ecological significance
of earthworms
Soils may barbor 50 to 500 earthworms per
square meter; they contribute to soil formation
and improvement in the following ways:
 tunnels improve aeration and drainage
 dead vegetation is pulled into the soil where
decay by saprobionts take place
 mixing of soil layers
 castings fertilizes the soil
 addition of organic matter by excretion and
death
secretions of gut neutralize acid soils
improving tilth by passing soil through gut
It may be doubted whether there are
many other creatures which have played
so important a part in the history of the
world
Charles Darwin,
1881
Classification of the
Annelida
Arthropoda
segmented appendices
Introduction to arthropods
Arthropods…
 have exoskeleton
 have jointed limbs
 have segmented body
 have dorsal heart and open blood system
grow in stages after moulting (ecdysis)
 because of the size and importance of this
phylum, it is mainly divided into four further
classes:
- crustacea: with very hard exoskeleton
- insecta : body with three parts and three
pairs of legs
- arachnida: body divided into two parts with
four pairs of legs
- myriapoda: with many segments and legs
Adaptive features
Gaseous exchange Trachea, gill
Nutrition Holozoic, parasitic
Support exoskeleton
Fertilization internal
Embryo develop egg
Movement Leg, fly by wing, swim by tail
Special features Segmented, coelomate
The subphylum crustacea
Crustacea contains 30,000 mostly marine
species. A few species live in freshwater. For
example: lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, etc.
They process...
 two pairs of antennae
 a pair of mandibles
 a pair of compound eyes (usually on stalks)
 two pairs of maxillae on their heads
 a pair of appendages on each body segment
 a head, thorax, and abdomen
 gills for gaseous exchange
 a hard exoskeleton for support and
protection
Anatomy of crustacean (a
prawn)
Marine Copepod
(Crustacean),
Pleuromamma sp.
Marine Copepod
(Crustacean), Actitius
sp.
The subphylum insecta
Insects are the largest group, with probably over
one million identified and named species.
Insects live in almost all terrestrial and
freshwater habitats, with a few species living in
the oceans.
These contribute to insects that they are the
most successful group of animal, and are the
least likely to become extinct.
General characteristics
of the insects
External characteristics
 body comprises head, thorax and abdomen
 three pairs of thoracic walking legs
 two pairs of thoracic wings derived from the
outgrowths of the body wall
 one pair of antennae on the head
 one pair of relatively large compound eyes
Other characteristics
 respiration by a tracheae system with
external openings called spiracles dividing into
finely branched tubules that carry gases
directly to metabolizing tissues
 nervous system include a number of ganglia
and a ventral, double nerve cord
 have a complete and complex digestive
system
very sensitive to sound and have excellent
chemoreceptive abilities.
 have to moult in order to increase in size
Anatomy of the insect
body
Fruit flyFruit Fly. The insect body is divided into head,
thorax (with wings), and a segmented abdomen. The
compound eye of insects is also quite prominent.
Significance of insects
to the ecosystem
Insects are very valuable to us although it
sometimes eat our food, sting us and transmit
diseases. They play a vital role in the ecosystem
by functioning in:
 pollination of many flowering plants
 decomposition of organic materials
 recycling of carbon, nitrogen, and other
essential nutrients
 control of populations of harmful
invertebrate species (including other insects)
 direct production of certain foods like honey
 manufacture of useful products such as silk
and shellac
 become prey of other predators to balance
the food chain
Insecta is most successful animal because it
divided to 70% of all animal species.
Some more examples of
insects
Cockroach -
can transmit
dieseas
Dragonfly
Bee - a born pollinator
of flowers
Moth - can also
pollinate like the
bees
Ant - sometimes
bite the wooden
furniture
Cicad
a

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Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
 

Invertibrate introduction

  • 4. Pseudocoelomate mesoderm attach to one side but no cleavage
  • 9. Adaptive features Gaseous exchange diffusion Nutrition Choanocyte filtering Support water Fertilization external Embryo develop no Movement no Special features Asymmetical no mouth no anus
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 14. No blood, respiratory, or excretory organs A network of nerve cells and fibres exists in body wall Single internal cavity with only opening to the exterior, the ‘mouth’ which is surrounded by tentacles Reproduction by assexual budding in polyp stage, sexual reproduction by eggs and sperm in medusa stage
  • 15. Polyp and Medusa • Polyp • body is tubular or cylindrical • oral end, bering the mouth and tentacles, is directed upwards, and the opposite, or aboral end is attached • layer of mesoglea is thin
  • 16. Polyp
  • 17.  Medusa  body resembles a bell or umbrella, with the convex side upward and the mouth located in the cneter of the concave under-surface  tentacles hang downwards from the margin of the ‘bell’  layer of mesoglea is extremely thick
  • 19. Adaptive features Gaseous exchange diffusion Nutrition Holozoic by nematocyst Support water Fertilization external Embryo develop external Movement Only in larva and medusa Special features Nematocyst, polyp, medusa Radial symmetrical, acoelomate
  • 20.
  • 21. Nematoblasts  Nematoblasts 1. they are in the ectoderm 2. each consists of highly complex organelle, nematocyst, which is a minute capsule filled with fluid and containing a coiled, barbed thread tube
  • 22.
  • 23.  when the triggering device, cnidocil, on the outer surface of the nematoblast is stimulated, the thread tube everts to aid in capture of prey, protection or locomotion
  • 24. Morphology of Obelia 1. Classification – Class Hydrozoa (hydroids) 2. Habitat – lives in shallow coastal water attached to substratum  Morphology – exists in 2distinctly different forms in its life – colonial form (polyps) – free living form (medusa)
  • 27.
  • 29. Introduction to Platyhelminthes Triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, acoelomate and unsegmented Body is flattened dorsoventrally Digestive system incomplete –a mouth but no anus No skeletal, circulatory, or respiratory systems; excretory system of many flame cells joined to excretory ducts
  • 30. Nervous system primitively a simple nerve net, but advanced forms have a pair of anterior ganglia or a nerve ring and 1 to3 pairs of longitudinal nerve cords with transverse connectives Complex hermaphroditic reproductive system; internal fertilization; development either direct or with 1 or more larval stages
  • 31. Adaptive features Gaseous exchange Flattened, diffusion Nutrition Holozoic in planaria or parasitic Support no Fertilization Hermaphrodite Embryo develop Egg external Movement muscle Special features Bilateral symmetrical, acoelomate
  • 32.
  • 33. Planaria 1. Habitat – the common planaria inhabit cool ,clear permanent lakes and streams, where they avoid light by clinging to the under surface of stones or logs in the water
  • 35.
  • 37.
  • 38. Tapeworm 1. Habitat – The adult stage lives in the small of its primary host (e.g. man) i.e. it is an endoparasite – The immature stage lives inside the body of the secondary host (e.g. pig)
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  • 42.
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  • 46. Adaptive features Gaseous exchange diffusion Nutrition Parasite, holozoic Support no Fertilization hermaphrodite Embryo develop egg Movement muscle Special features Bilateral symmetrical, no segment
  • 47. &
  • 48. External view of an earthworm
  • 49. Introduction to annelids Annelids…for example as earthworm belong to the Phylum Annelida are segmented worms showing metameric segmentation are coleomate animals  have a fluid-filled body in which the gut and other organs are suspended are further classified into three classes: polychaeta, oligochaeta, hirudinea
  • 50. Body structure of annelids  enlarged coelom to accommodate more complex internal organs.  well-developed, fluid-filled coelom and the tough integument act as a hydrostatic skeleton.  Closed circulatory system with blood vessels running the length of the body and branching into every segment
  • 51.  nervous system consists of a brain connected to a ventral solid nerve cord, with a ganglion in each segment  complete digestive system including a pharynx, stomach, intestine, and accessory glands  excretory nephridia in each segment to collect waste material from coelom and excrete it through the body wall
  • 52. Anatomy of a typical annelid, earthworm
  • 53. Cross section of through the earthworm body
  • 54. Adaptive features Gaseous exchange Diffusion through skin Nutrition Holozoic, debris feeder Support hydroskeleton Fertilization Internal, hermaphrodite but mate Embryo develop External, cocoon Movement Muscle, chaetae Special features Coelomate, segmented,
  • 55. Morphology of an earth worm Earthworms belong to the oligochaeta class.  They are hermaphroditic with both male and female gonads.  The mesoderm of an earthworm splits into outer and inner layer with coelom in between which allows: - space for development of organs - development of hydrostatic skeleton for support and movement - for independent movement of body wall and gut
  • 56. Metameric segmentation of earthworms allows for: - specialization of different body parts - division of labour - muscular body wall divides into blocks to provide independent movement of different parts of the body Earthworms have hydroskeletons to maintain the body shape Muscles of body wall acts on coelomic fluid to bring about locomotion, support and protection
  • 57. Ecological significance of earthworms Soils may barbor 50 to 500 earthworms per square meter; they contribute to soil formation and improvement in the following ways:  tunnels improve aeration and drainage  dead vegetation is pulled into the soil where decay by saprobionts take place  mixing of soil layers  castings fertilizes the soil
  • 58.  addition of organic matter by excretion and death secretions of gut neutralize acid soils improving tilth by passing soil through gut It may be doubted whether there are many other creatures which have played so important a part in the history of the world Charles Darwin, 1881
  • 61. Introduction to arthropods Arthropods…  have exoskeleton  have jointed limbs  have segmented body  have dorsal heart and open blood system grow in stages after moulting (ecdysis)
  • 62.  because of the size and importance of this phylum, it is mainly divided into four further classes: - crustacea: with very hard exoskeleton - insecta : body with three parts and three pairs of legs - arachnida: body divided into two parts with four pairs of legs - myriapoda: with many segments and legs
  • 63. Adaptive features Gaseous exchange Trachea, gill Nutrition Holozoic, parasitic Support exoskeleton Fertilization internal Embryo develop egg Movement Leg, fly by wing, swim by tail Special features Segmented, coelomate
  • 64. The subphylum crustacea Crustacea contains 30,000 mostly marine species. A few species live in freshwater. For example: lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, etc. They process...  two pairs of antennae  a pair of mandibles  a pair of compound eyes (usually on stalks)  two pairs of maxillae on their heads
  • 65.  a pair of appendages on each body segment  a head, thorax, and abdomen  gills for gaseous exchange  a hard exoskeleton for support and protection
  • 67. Marine Copepod (Crustacean), Pleuromamma sp. Marine Copepod (Crustacean), Actitius sp.
  • 68. The subphylum insecta Insects are the largest group, with probably over one million identified and named species. Insects live in almost all terrestrial and freshwater habitats, with a few species living in the oceans. These contribute to insects that they are the most successful group of animal, and are the least likely to become extinct.
  • 69. General characteristics of the insects External characteristics  body comprises head, thorax and abdomen  three pairs of thoracic walking legs  two pairs of thoracic wings derived from the outgrowths of the body wall  one pair of antennae on the head  one pair of relatively large compound eyes
  • 70. Other characteristics  respiration by a tracheae system with external openings called spiracles dividing into finely branched tubules that carry gases directly to metabolizing tissues  nervous system include a number of ganglia and a ventral, double nerve cord  have a complete and complex digestive system very sensitive to sound and have excellent chemoreceptive abilities.  have to moult in order to increase in size
  • 71. Anatomy of the insect body
  • 72. Fruit flyFruit Fly. The insect body is divided into head, thorax (with wings), and a segmented abdomen. The compound eye of insects is also quite prominent.
  • 73. Significance of insects to the ecosystem Insects are very valuable to us although it sometimes eat our food, sting us and transmit diseases. They play a vital role in the ecosystem by functioning in:  pollination of many flowering plants  decomposition of organic materials  recycling of carbon, nitrogen, and other essential nutrients
  • 74.  control of populations of harmful invertebrate species (including other insects)  direct production of certain foods like honey  manufacture of useful products such as silk and shellac  become prey of other predators to balance the food chain Insecta is most successful animal because it divided to 70% of all animal species.
  • 75. Some more examples of insects Cockroach - can transmit dieseas
  • 76. Dragonfly Bee - a born pollinator of flowers
  • 77. Moth - can also pollinate like the bees Ant - sometimes bite the wooden furniture Cicad a