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Matter

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    Matter Matter Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2 The Properties of Matter What is matter? Which part of this course is more concerned with matter?
    • Matter
      • Everything is made of MATTER!
      • Matter is anything that has volume and mass.
      • Volume is the amount of space an object takes up, or occupies.
    • Measuring the volume of liquids
      • Liquids have volume. We measure that volume with a graduated cylinder.
      • Notice the meniscus in the graduated cylinder.
      • Always measure at the bottom of the meniscus!
      • A liquid in any container has a meniscus.
      • Liters (L) and mL (milliliters) are most often used to express the volume of liquids.
    • Solid Volume
      • The volume in a solid is always expressed in cubic units.
      • Cubic means having “three dimensions.”
      • Cubic meters(m 3 ) or cubic centimeters(cm 3 ) are most often used to express the volume of a solid.
      • The 3 in m 3 signifies that three quantities were used to get the final result. (That is a derived quantity!)
      • If each side in the cube below is 2m, what is the volume of the cube?
      • __________
    • The Volume of Solids, Liquids, and Gases
      • 1 mL = 1 cm 3 REMEMBER THAT!
      • That is why you can compare the volume in liquids to solids.
      • How do you measure the volume of a gas?
      • You can’t see, so how do you measure it?
      • ex: balloon
      • _________________________
    • Matter and Mass
      • What is mass?
      • Mass is the amount of matter that something is made of.
      • Even atoms have mass!
      • Looking at the picture…
      • The mass stays constant in certain forms of matter such as…__________________.
      • The mass changes in certain forms of matter such as…_________________.
    • What is the difference between mass and weight?
      • This is an important concept to understand!
      • Let’s start by understanding gravity.
      • Gravity is the force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses.
      • All matter experiences gravity!
      • The amount of attraction between two objects depends on their weight.
      • There is attraction between all objects with mass, but since they are so small in reference to the earth, the attraction between them is also small.
    • So, what about weight?
      • Weight is the measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object!
      • Look at Spot and the rock…which one is attracted to the earth more through gravitational force? ________________
      • Which one weighs more? ___________
      • So, this means the greater the gravitational force, the greater the weight.
      • Which weighs
      • more? ------->
    • Measuring Weight and Mass
      • The SI unit for mass is kilogram (kg).
      • Sometimes we will use milligrams or grams. (mg or g)
      • The SI unit for weight (or gravitational force) is NEWTONS.
      • A Newton is approximately equal to the weight of a 100 gram mass on earth.
    • The major differences between
      • MASS
      • A measure of the amount of matter in object.
      • Always constant, no matter the location.
      • Measured with a balance.
      • Expressed in kilograms, grams, and milligrams.
      • WEIGHT
      • A measure of the gravitational force on an object.
      • Varies depending on where the object is in relation to the earth. Example: ____________
      • Measured with a spring scale.
      • Expressed in Newtons.
    • Mass is a measure of Inertia
      • What in the world is inertia?
      • Ever try to move a car? Yeah, it is difficult!
      • That is because of inertia!
      • Inertia is the tendency of all object to resist a change in motion.
      • This will cause objects that are still to remain still, and allow objects that are moving to continue moving.
      • Mass is a measure of inertia because the greater the mass of an object…the more difficult it is to move.
    • Describing Matter
      • Knowing the characteristics or properties of an object can help you identify the object.
      • There are:
        • Physical Properties
        • Chemical Properties
    • Physical Properties
      • Things that describe the object are physical properties.
      • Physical properties can also be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter.
      • Examples of physical properties include: color, odor, size, state, density, solubility, melting point, etc…
    • Spotlight on Density
      • Density is a very helpful physical property.
      • Density = mass per unit of volume or Density = mass/volume
      • Density is an excellent help in identifying substances because each substance has its own density.
    • If Density = mass/volume
      • Then mass = volume x density
      • or
      • m = v x d
      • AND volume = mass/density
      • or
      • volume = m
      • V
    • Chemical Properties
      • Chemical properties describe a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties.
      • Ex: wood burns to form ash and smoke
      • Chemical properties cannot be observed with your senses.
      • Chemical properties aren’t as easy to observe as physical properties.
      • Examples of chemical properties: flammability and reactivity
    • Characteristic Properties
      • The properties that are most useful in identifying a substance are its characteristic properties.
      • Remember the difference between physical and chemical properties.
      • Physical properties can be observed! (with your eyes!) IDENTITY OF SUBSTANCE DOES NOT CHANGE!
      • You can observe chemical properties only in situations in which the identity of the substance could change.
    • Physical Changes
      • A physical change is a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance.
      • Physical changes do not form new substances! EX: ice melting or sugar dissolving
      • Physical changes are easy to undo.
    • Chemical Changes
      • A chemical change occurs when one or more substances are changed into entirely new substances with different properties.
      • You can observe chemical properties only when a chemical change might occur!
      • Examples of chem. changes:
      • baking a cake
      • rusting
    • Clues to chemical changes
      • Color change
      • Fizzing or bubbling (gas production)
      • Heat
      • Production of light, sound, or odor.
      • Chemical changes are not usually reversible!
    • For tomorrow…
      • Please re-read Phyz talk
      • Be prepared to begin stations.
      • Know that I am going to do a binder check this week!