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  1. 1. Matter & Change
  2. 2. What is Chemistry? <ul><li>The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Why Study Chemistry? </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry is central to our understanding of other sciences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry is also encountered in everyday life. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Branches of Chemistry <ul><li>Organic – carbon – containing compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic – anything not organic </li></ul><ul><li>Physical – relationship between energy & matter </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical – identification of components and composition </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry – substances & processes occurring in living things </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical – use math & computers to predict properties of new compounds </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Research <ul><li>Basic – carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge, such as how and why a specific reaction occurs </li></ul><ul><li>- chance discoveries are sometimes the result </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Applied – generally carried out to solve a problem </li></ul><ul><li>- develop new compounds to replace refrigerants that are suspected of destroying ozone layer </li></ul><ul><li>Technological development – involves the production and use of products </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is Matter? <ul><li>Must Fulfill Two Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Have Mass - amount </li></ul><ul><li>Have Volume - space </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>States of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Matter can be a gas, a liquid, or a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>Gases have no fixed shape or volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Gases can be compressed to form liquids. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids have no shape, but they do have a volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Solids are rigid and have a definite shape and volume. </li></ul>
  9. 9.   The Three States of Matter
  10. 10. Building Blocks of Matter <ul><li>Atom – smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element </li></ul><ul><li>Element – pure substance made of only one kind of atom </li></ul><ul><li>Compound – atoms of two or more elements chemically combined </li></ul>
  11. 11. Properties <ul><li>A characteristic that defines substance </li></ul><ul><li>Two classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive – dependent on the amount of matter present (volume, mass, energy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive – is not dependent on amount (melting point, boiling point) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Physical Properties & Changes <ul><li>A change in the substance that does not involve a change in the identity </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: change of state </li></ul>
  13. 13. Chemical Properties & Changes <ul><li>Substance’s ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants  Products </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chemical Change Evidence <ul><li>Production of a gas </li></ul><ul><li>Production of a precipitate </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul>
  15. 15. Energy & Change <ul><li>Energy is almost always involved in both chemical and physical changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Conservation of Energy (and Mass) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is put in – endothermic </li></ul><ul><li>Energy given off - exothermic </li></ul>
  16. 16. Classification of Matter Matter Can it be separated? Yes No Pure Substances Mixtures Is composition uniform? Homogeneous Heterogeneous Yes No Can it be decomposed by ordinary chemical means? Yes No Compounds Elements Blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties Has a fixed composition; has exactly the same properties throughout; has exactly the same composition
  17. 17. <ul><li>Pure Substances and Mixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms consist of only one type of element. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules can consist of more than one type of element. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules can have only one type of atom (an element). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules can have more than one type of atom (a compound). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If more than one atom, element, or compound are found together, then the substance is a mixture. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Pure Substances and Mixtures </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Pure Substances and Mixtures </li></ul><ul><li>If matter is not uniform throughout, then it is a heterogeneous mixture . </li></ul><ul><li>If matter is uniform throughout, it is homogeneous . </li></ul><ul><li>If homogeneous matter can be separated by physical means, then the matter is a mixture. </li></ul><ul><li>If homogeneous matter cannot be separated by physical means, then the matter is a pure substance . </li></ul><ul><li>If a pure substance can be decomposed into something else, then the substance is a compound . </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Mixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform throughout. </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous mixtures are uniform throughout. </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous mixtures are called solutions. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Periodic Table Groups Periods Metalloids Noble Gases
  22. 22. <ul><li>Elements </li></ul><ul><li>If a pure substance cannot be decomposed into something else, then the substance is an element . </li></ul><ul><li>There are 114 elements known. </li></ul><ul><li>Each element is given a unique chemical symbol (one or two letters). </li></ul><ul><li>Elements are building blocks of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>The earth’s crust consists of 5 main elements. (O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca) </li></ul><ul><li>The human body consists mostly of 3 main elements. (O, C, H) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Elements
  24. 24. <ul><li>Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical symbols with one letter have that letter capitalized (e.g., H, B, C, N, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical symbols with two letters have only the first letter capitalized (e.g., He, Be). </li></ul>C U Cu Na