MATTERS5P1. Students will verify that an object is the sum of its parts.a. Demonstrate that the mass of an object is equal to the sum of its parts by manipulating andmeasuring different objects made of various parts.b. Investigate how common items have parts that are too small to be seen without magnification.S5P2. Students will explain the difference between a physical change and a chemicalchange.a. Investigate physical changes by separating mixtures and manipulating (cutting, tearing, folding)paper to demonstrate examples of physical change.b. Recognize that the changes in state of water (water vapor/steam, liquid, ice) are due totemperature differences and are examples of physical change.c. Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after a chemical reaction to findevidence of change.
What is matter? MassMatter is anything that has _________ and takes up ______________. Space
Examples of matter:*Have kids come up and write examples.
Properties of Matter:• Size• Texture• Shape• Odor• Density• Mass• Boiling & Freezing Point• Properties of Matter
What is matter made of? Elements- building blocks of matter.
Atoms Atoms are the smallest unit of an element that still has all of the same properties as that element.
Molecules Molecules are atoms that have combined together. Here is an image of a water molecule, made of 2 atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.
STATES OF MATTER Solids Liquids Gases States of Matter Game States of Matter Explanation
Solids Definite shape Test It: Move a solid object from container to container. Does it take the shape of its container or does it keep its original shape? Definite volume Try to squeeze a solid object and compress it so that it takes up less space. If it is truly a solid object that does not have air pockets in it, you cannot change the volume.
Liquids No definite shape Test it: Transfer liquid to different containers. Does it take the shape of its container or does it keep its original shape? Definite volume Test It: Fill a plastic disposable water bottle up all the way to the very top, leaving no air bubble. Replace the cap securely and squeeze. You cannot deform the bottle because liquids have a definite volume. You cannot force them to take up less space. Any compression you may feel will be from the air bubbles trapped in the water.
Gases No definite shape No definite volume. The volume of a gas can be easily changed with heat and/or pressure.
Let’s Draw Some Pictures!Draw a picture of each state of matter.States of MatterDraw a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting solids, liquids, and gasses
How Do We Measure Matter?The Metric System – system ofmeasurement based on the number 10Length - meterVolume – literMass - gram Brainpop – Measuring Matter
What is mass? Mass is how much “stuff” is in an object. We can measure mass using a balance. Measured in grams
Are mass and weight the same thing? No. Weight is a measure of how much Earth’s gravitational force is pulling down on an object. Your weight would be different if you were on the moon. Your mass would be the same on Earth and the moon. Find out your weight on other planets.
Mass When you take the mass of something, you are balancing the object with a set of standard masses. The mass of the standards are always the same no matter where you are. The mass is based on how many atoms are in the object. Mass and weight animation. Requires shockwave and a free 30-day trial Make sure you change locations on the animation.
Matter takes up space. When we describe how muchspace an object takes up, we are talking about the object’s Volume.
How to measure volume: In math, you have learned some formulas that help you to calculate how much space an object takes up. What are some of the formulas you can remember for volume?
Its easy to calculate the volume ofsome objects….. rectangular solid = a x b x c or l x w x h pyramid = (1/3) b h sphere = (4/3) pi r 3
There is no easy formula for others… How could you figure out how much space these items take up?
One way, is by something called waterdisplacement. When you submerge an object in water, the water level rises. The amount of water that is displaced is equal to the volume of the object. water displacement animation The solution is for density calculations and can be ignored. We only want to look at the animation.
How could we calculate the volume ofliquids?Since liquids take the shape of theircontainer, we can just pour them into ameasuring tool.
Part II. Every object in the world is made of smaller parts.
Let’s take a look at the periodic table: interactive periodic tablesfree downloadable periodic tables
Everything is made of smaller parts. Imagine a cake. The cake is made of different ingredients. Similarly, everything in our world is made of different elements. Elements are the ingredients of our world. There are about 100 known elements.
Elements If we are going to think of elements as our cake ingredients, we know we can break each of those ingredients down into smaller pieces. For example: Sugar is a cake ingredient just as hydrogen is an ingredient (element) in water.
Atoms A cup of sugar can be broken down into individual grains of sugar, just as hydrogen can be broken down into ATOMS of hydrogen. Ingredients = elements Grains of ingredients = atoms of elements
Interesting facts: Most elements are metals. Only one is a liquid at room temperature and that’s mercury (Hg). Pencil “lead” is not really lead anymore but graphite, which is carbon. Diamonds are carbon too. All the atoms are the same in graphite and diamonds, they are just arranged differently.
Density is a physical property. Density describes how much stuff is packed into a certain volume. You can calculate density by dividing mass by volume. Density = mass volume
Which is more dense? 10 g More dense 100 gLess dense feathers rocks If you have two boxes that are same volume (they take up the same amount of space) but one has more mass, the more massive object is more dense.
Which is more dense?More dense. 100 grams 100 grams
Density determines if an object willsink or float in water. If an object has a density greater than the density of water, the object will sink. If the object has a density less than that of water, it will float.
Try it out… Get a container and fill it with water. Gather lots of different objects and predict if they will sink or float when placed in the water. Test your hypothesis. Density animation.
Boiling and Melting Points Boiling and melting points are physical properties of matter. Different materials have different melting and boiling points.
Changing the volume of gases with pressure Take an empty plastic disposable water bottle. Fasten the cap securely. Add pressure to the bottle by squeezing as hard as you can. When the bottle deforms, the gas inside has been forced to take up less space. The air’s volume has been changed. It now has less volume.
Changing the volume of a gas with heat. As air is heated, it expands. As air is cooled, it contracts.Liquid Nitrogen and Balloon video.: This video shows that when exposed toliquid nitrogen (a super-cold liquid) the volume of the air gets smaller. Note:The same number of air molecules are in the balloon. They are just takingup less space.(Demonstrate change in volume by doing Balloon Bath Activity inyour textbook on pg 185.)
Can Crusher DemoCan crushing video.Can crushing demo instructions. What happened to the can? As the air inside the can heated up, the molecules began to move faster and faster and they expanded. When the can was submerged in cold water, the air contracted causing the air pressure inside the can to be lower than the air pressure in the room. The air pressure difference is what caused the can to be crushed.
Chemical Properties A chemical property is a property of matter that can only be observed when matter is changed into a new kind of matter. Ex. Flammability You can’t determine if an object is flammable unless you try to burn it.
Chemical properties. Whether or not a material has the ability to rust is a chemical property. Could you observe if a material has that property without changing the material chemically? No. The only way to know if an object can rust is to allow it to rust and then you have chemically altered the material.
What is a physical change? A change in the size, shape, or state of matter. A new type of matter is NOT being formed. Examples include phase changes, cutting, tearing, crushing, dissolving, etc.
Phase Changes Solid Liquid Melting Liquid Solid Solidifying or Freezing Solid Gas Sublimating Liquid Gas Evaporating or Vaporizing Gas Liquid Condensing
What is the difference betweenvaporizing and evaporating? Vaporization occurs at the substance’s boiling point. When water boils and changes into a gas, it is vaporizing. Evaporation can occur below the substance’s boiling point. If you let a cup of water sit out for many days, some of the water will change to a gas even though the temperature is below the boiling point. This is evaporation.
What is required to change states ofmatter? Energy in the form of HEAT. Heat is either absorbed or released when substances change from one state of matter to another.
Put some hand sanitizer on your hand. Does it feel cold? Why? The sanitizer is changing from a liquid to a gas. It is evaporating. The phase change requires energy. Where does it get the energy? Your hand. Heat is removed from your body in order to change the substance from a liquid to a gas.
Why do we sweat? When we sweat, moisture is released onto our skin. As the moisture evaporates, it requires heat energy that it gets from our skin. As heat is removed from our body, we become cooler.
Phase changes are physical changes.Now let’s talk about chemical changes. What is a chemical change? A change in which a new kind of matter is being made. Energy is always involved. Atoms and molecules make new combinations with other atoms and molecules.
Signs of a Chemical Change Change in temperature Gas is produced Light is produced Color change A precipitate forms
Sometimes chemical reactionsproduce heat. Sometimes when a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, heat is produced. Hand-warmer packs use chemical reactions to produce heat.
Some chemical reactions removeheat from the environment. Cold packs, used for injuries, use chemical reactions to remove heat from the environment and make substances feel very cold.
Gas Production Some chemical reactions produce gas. Alka-Seltzer tablets and water are an example of a chemical reaction in which gas is produced.
Try it….. Take an empty water bottle and filling it ¼ of the way up with water. Add an Alka-Seltzer tablet and immediately cover the top with a balloon to trap the gas that is being produced.
Light as evidence of a chemical reaction: Glow sticks use chemical reactions to produce light. When you crack the glow stick you are breaking a vial that allows two chemicals to react together to produce light.
Color Change Sometimes when two substances interact chemically, their color changes. Purple cabbage indicator video.
Some chemical reactions cause aprecipitate to form. What is a precipitate? A precipitate is when a solid forms in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction.Precipitation reaction video.
Let’s Review Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Volume describes how much space an object takes up. Density is a ratio of mass to volume.
Physical and Chemical PROPERTIES Physical properties can be observed using your senses and the matter is not changed by observing it. Chemical properties cannot be observed without changing the matter chemically and producing a new substance with different properties.
Chemical Properties Ability to burn Ability to rust Ability to tarnish Ability to react with water Etc
Physical & Chemical CHANGES Physical changes are changes in matter that do not produce a new kind of matter. Chemical changes are changes that do produce a new kind of matter with different properties.