UNIT 2: THE MATTER AND THEIR
1.- WHAT IS THE MATTER?
Everything that occupies space and has mass is
matter. Therefore, everything around us is
matter and has mass and volume.
Matter can exist in three physical states: solid,
liquid and gas.
2.- PROPERTIES OF MATTER
General or extensive properties:
these are the properties common to all the
matter and they depend on the size. General
properties allow us to recognize matter. They
are MASS and VOLUME.
– MASS IS THE QUANTITY OF MATTER.
– VOLUME IS THE SPACE THAT OCCUPIES
Specific or intensive properties:
there are characteristics that allow us to
differentiate some materials from others
and they don´t depend on the size. Thus,
they can be used to identify and describe
matter. Some specific properties are:
colour, shine, hardness, density, …
You can see that matter has too
many properties. We´ll study just
three of them: mass, volume and
density. They are going to be the
most important properties to us
and all of these properties can be
Which of these properties are
general or specific properties:
Colour, mass, smell, shine, taste,
volume, density, size, hardness,
3.- MEASURE OF MATTER.
MAGNITUDE IS ANY PROPERTY OF
MATTER THAT YOU CAN MEASURE.
TO MEASURE IS TO COMPARE A
MAGNITUDE WITH THE UNIT.
To compare measurements, however,
everyone needs to use the same units. The
most common system is the International
System of Units (SI).
• DIFERENCE AMONG LENGTH, SURFACE AREA AND
• LENGTH: Is the distance between two points. In
the S.I. length is measured in metres.
• SURFACE AREA: is the space occupied by the
length and width of a body. In the S.I. surface is
measured in square metres (m2). For measuring
the surface area of regular shaped objects we use
the mathematical equation corresponding to the
• VOLUME of a solid is the amount of space it
occupies. Volume is measured in cubic metres
• Capacity: is the amount of liquid a container
can be hold when it is full. Capacity is
measured in litres (L).
• If you want to measure the volume of a solid
you can use a measuring cylinder. Submerge
the body in water, then measure the amount
of water displaced. You can also use the
corresponding mathematical formula for
regular geometric solids.
• MASS is the amount of matter in a body. Mass
is measured in kilograms (kg). Electronic scale
or balance is used to measure mass.
• DENSITY is the relationship between the mass
and the volume of a body, that is how
concentrated the mass is in a specific volume.
The density of an object is often measured in grams per
cubic centimetre (g/cm3).
So to measure the density of an object you would put it
on a balance to measure how many grams it is (the
object's mass) then divide that number by the amount
of space the object takes up (its volume).
• The density of something stays the same wherever you
take it, on Earth, Mars, or anywhere in the universe.