PLANT TISSUES PRESENTATION

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PLANT TISSUES PRESENTATION

  1. 1. PLANT TISSUES BY LA NDLOVU 201208082
  2. 2. TISSUES AG RO UP O F CLO SELY A SSO CI TED CELLS A THA PERFO RMRELA T TED FUN O N A D CTI S N A SI I R I STRUCTURE. RE MLA N
  3. 3. Shoot and Root Systems Shoot system - produces sugars by photosynthesis Shoot System - carries out reproduction Root system - anchors the plant - penetrates the soil and absorbs water and minerals - stores food Root System
  4. 4. Shoot and root systems are interdependent water & minerals sugar SHOOT SYSTEM ROOT SYSTEM
  5. 5. PLANT TISSUE SYSTEMS • Ground tissue system • Vascular tissue system • Dermal tissue system EPIDERMIS VASCULAR TISSUES GROUND TISSUES SHOOT SYSTEM ROOT SYSTEM
  6. 6. PLANT TISSUES  TISSUES IN PLANTS THAT DIVIDE THROUGHOUT THEIR LIFE.  PLANT TI SSUES CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS:  GROWING OR MERISTEMATIC TISSUE  PERMANENT TISSUE Permanent tissue Meristematic tissue
  7. 7. MERISTEMATIC TISSUES  The growth of plants occurs in certain specific regions.  This is because the dividing tissue,  Known as meristematic tissue  Composed of actively dividing ceIIs, responsible for the production of ceIIs.  Capacity for division is restricted to certain parts of the plant body called meristems  Which are active throughout the life of the plant body.
  8. 8. MERISTEMATIC TISSUES
  9. 9. MERISTEMATIC TISSUES KINDS OF MERISTEMS: • APICAL MERISTEMS – FOUND AT THE TIP OF STEMS & ROOTS • LATERAL MERISTEMS – A.K.A. CAMBIA - FOUND ALONG THE SIDES OF ROOTS & STEMS - INCREASE WIDTH OR DIAMETER OF STEMS & ROOTS - TYPES: 1. VASCULAR CAMBIUM 2. CORK CAMBIUM • INTERCALLARY MERISTEMS – FOUND AT THE BASES OF YOUNG LEAVES & INTERNODES - RESPONSIBLE FOR FURTHER LENGTHENING OF STEMS & LEAVES
  10. 10. PERMANENT TISSUES  Tissues that attained their mature form and perform pacific functions.  They stop dividing Types: • Simple permanent tissues • Complex permanent tissues
  11. 11. DERMAL /SURFACE TISSUE SIMPLE PERMANENT TISSUES - CONSIST ONLY OF ONE KIND OF CELLS A. DERMAL /SURFACE TISSUE - EXTERNAL TISSUES - FORMS PROTECTIVE COVERING OF THE PLANT BODY A. EPIDERMIS B. PERIDERM
  12. 12. PERMANENT TISSUES • EPIDERMIS - THE OUTERMOST LAYER OF THE PRIMARY PLANT BODY - COVERS THE LEAVES, FLORAL PARTS, FRUITS, SEEDS, TEMS AND ROOTS - GENERALLY ONLY ONE LAYER THICK WITH CUTICLE - COMPOSED MOSTLY OF UNSPECIALIZED CELLS, EITHER PARENCHYMA AND/OR SCLERENCHYMA - CONTAINS TRICHOMES, STOMATA, BUIIIFORM CEIIS (IN GRASSES)
  13. 13. STRUCTURE OF EPIDERMIS
  14. 14. Stomata • STOMATA - PORES FOR GAS EXCHANGE - PRESENT ON ONE OR BOTH SURFACES OF LEAVES.
  15. 15. Cuticle CUTICLE – LINES THE OUTER WAII OF THE EPIDERMAL CEIIS - MADE UP OF WAXY MATERIAL THAT PROTECTS PLANTS FROM DESICCATION Cuticle Layer of the leaf
  16. 16. Trichomes Trichomes – outgrowths of epidermal ceIIs
  17. 17. Periderm (Bark) • PERIDERM (BARK) IS THE OUTERMOST LAYER OF STEMS AND ROOTS OF WOODY PLANTS SUCH AS TREES.
  18. 18. GROUND TISSUES 1. PARENCHYMA - ARE THE GENERAL PURPOSE CEIIS OF PLANTS - CELLS ARE ROUNDED IN SHAPE & HAVE UNIFORMLY THIN WALLS FOUND IN ALL PARTS OF THE PLANTS. - LIVING AT MATURITY, HAVE LARGE VACUOLES - LOCATION IEAF, STEM (PITH), ROOTS, FRUITS FUNCTIONS: *BASIC METABOLIC FUNCTION (RESPIRATION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS (CHIORENCHYMA IN LEAF) & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS) *STOR AGE (POTATOES, FRUITS, & SEEDS) *W OUND HEALING AND REGENER ATION
  19. 19. PARENCHYMA
  20. 20. COLLENCHYMA
  21. 21. SCLERENCHYMA SCLERIDS Right-hand illustration modified from: Weier, Stocking & Barbour, 1974, Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology, 5th Ed. FIBERS
  22. 22. Complex Permanent Tissues VASCULAR TISSUES SPECIALIZED FOR LONG-DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF WATER AND DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES. CONTAIN TRANSFER CEIIS, FIBERS IN ADDITION TO PARENCHYMA AND CONDUCTING CEIIS. LOCATION, THE VEINS IN IEAVES TYPES: 1. XYLEM 2. PHLOEM
  23. 23. Xylem XYLEM GW XYIOS W/C MEANS “WOOD” TRANSPORTS WATER AND DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS FROM THE ROOTS TO AII PARTS OF A PLANT.  DIRECTION OF TRANSPORT IS UPWARD. THERE ATE TWO TYPES • PRIMARY XYLEM – DIFFERENTIATES FROM PROCAMBIUM IN THE APICAL MERISTEM & OCCURS THROUGHOUT THE PRIMARY PLANT BODY. • SECONDARY XYLEM – DIFFERENTIATES FROM VASCULAR CAMBIUM & IS COMMONLY CALLED WOOD.
  24. 24. Xylem
  25. 25. Xylem • XYLARY ELEMENTS – THE CONDUCTING CELLS IN XYLEM - 2 KINDS OF XYLARY ELEMENTS: • TRACHEIDS – THE ONLY WATER CONDUCTING CELLS IN MOST WOODY, NON FLOWERING PLANTS. • VESSEL ELEMENTS – OCCUR IN SEVERAL GROUPS OF PLANTS, INCLUDING ANGIOSPERM. - BOTH ARE ELONGATED, DEAD AT MATURITY, LIGNIFIED SECONDARY CELL WALLS. Tracheids Vessel elements
  26. 26. PhIoem PHIOEM - GREEK WORD PHLOIOS MEANING, “BARK” - TRANSPORTS DISSOLVED ORGANIC / FOOD MATERIALS FROM THE IEAVES TO THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE PLANT - GLUCOSE IN PHLOEM MOVES IN AII DIRECTIONS TYPES 1. PRIMARY PHLOEM – DIFFERENTIATE FROM PROCAMBIUM AND EXTENDS THROUGHOUT THE PRIMARY BODY OF THE PLANT. 2. SECONDARY PHLOEM – DIFFERENTIATES FROM THE VASCULAR CAMBIUM AND CONSTITUTE THE INNER LAYER OF THE BARK.
  27. 27. PhIoem SIEVE TUBE ELEMENTS  MAIN CONDUCTING CEIIS OF PHLOEM  ELONGATED AND NON-NUCLEATED  UNIFORMLY THIN WALLED WITH THE END WALLS PERFORATED TO FROM THE SIEVE PLATE.  SIEVE TUBE ELEMENT ARE ATTACHED END TO END TO FORM THE SIEVE TUBE.
  28. 28. PhIoem
  29. 29. SIMPLE TISSUES – CONSISTING OF ONE CELL TYPE THIN WALLED & ALIVE AT MATURITY; OFTEN MULTIFACETED. COLLENCHYMA – THICK WALLED & ALIVE AT MATURITY SCLERENCHYMA – THICK WALLED AND DEAD AT MATURITY • PARENCHYMA – • • • SCLERIDS OR STONE CELLS – • CELLS AS LONG AS THEY ARE WIDE FIBERS – CELLS LONGER THAN THEY ARE WIDE • EPIDERMIS – ALIVE AT MATURITY • TRICHOMES – “PUBESCENCE” OR HAIRS ON EPIDERMIS • ROOT HAIRS – TUBULAR EXTENSIONS OF EPIDERMAL CELLS
  30. 30. EPIDERMIS – STOMA, TRICHOMES, & ROOT HAIRS http://www.ucd.ie/botany/Steer/hair/roothairs.html
  31. 31. COMPLEX TISSUE • XYLEM – WATER CONDUCTING TISSUE; PA REN CHYM , FI A BERS, VESSELS A D/O R N TRA CHEI DS, A D RA CELLS. N Y • PHLOEM FOOD CONDUCTING TISSUE; SI EVETUBE M BERS (N N EM O UCLEUS A M TURI T A TY, CYTO PLA SMPRESEN CO M N O N CELLS, T), PA I FI BERS, PA REN CHYM , A D RA CELLS. I A N Y N FLO WERI G PLA TS, SI N N EVE-TUBE M BERS EM A D CO M N O N CELLS A SE FRO MTHE N PA I RI SA E M THER CELL. M O • PERIDERM – PROTECTIVE COVERING; CO M S ED O F CO RK A D PA PO N REN CHYM . A •.
  32. 32. XYLEM
  33. 33. PHLOEM
  34. 34. VASCULAR BUNDLES WITH XYLEM & PHLOEM Maize or Corn – vein in cross section Alfalfa – vein in cross section
  35. 35. REFFERENCE •WWW.ITUTOR.COM • GEONYZL, (2011)
  36. 36. THANK YOU

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