SHOOT ROOT Stem Branches Leaves Flowers (contains reproductive organ of the plant) Buds
The shoot Comprises of the stem, branches, leaves, flowers and the buds Flowers contain the reproductive parts of the plant. Flowers develop into fruits In a flower bud the petals and reproductive organs are protected by a small leaf-like structures called sepals. Sepals fall off when the buds open up
Terminal bud: At the tip of the shoot. Makes the shoot longer. Lateral bud: Produce side branches The region where the leaf and the bud is found is called a NODE The gap between two nodes is called an INTERNODE
Tap root system:Thick central rootSmall lateral rootsEg : carrots Fibrous system:Many small thin roots which form a networkEg : yam: The root develops an organ called tuber in which the plant the stores food
Two tissues involved in transporting food and water: XYLEM: water-conducting tissue PHLOEM: food-conducting tissue
Water conducting tissue the xylem tissue transports water from the roots to all the parts of the plant They are made up of xylem cells which die and form hollow tubes called xylem vessels Water is needed for photosynthesis and for hydrating the cells
Food conducting tissue Phloem tissue transports food from the leaves to other parts of the plants These tubes are made up of living cells
Two major functions: (1) Anchoring the plant in soil (2) Absorbing water and minerals from the soil (root hairs aid in this function)
Roots that sprout from a part of the plant other than the primary root (parts such as stems, leaves etc) are called adventitious roots. E.g. ivy, clover, strawberry, tuberous plants. Adventitious roots help give support to the plant.
Provides support to other organs of the shoot Contains the transport system Thexylem and the phloem come together to form a structure called vascular bundle Holds the leaf at an appropriate angle to allow easy diffusion of gases and absorption of light They hold the flowers at an angle that helps in easy pollination
Makes food by carrying out photosynthesis Helps to draw water through the plant from the rootsWater from the roots root pushes the water up a plant a little way Water reaches all the parts of the stem due to the action of the leaves.
Epidermis: upper and lower surface, one layer On the outer surface of the epidermal cells is a layer of wax, which prevents water passing in and out of the leaf Sandwiched between the upper and lower tissue is the palisade (upper) and mesophyll (lower) Palisade tissue: food making Spongy mesophyll: food making, provide surface for evaporation of water
When temperature is too high water from spongy cells evaporates forming water vapour which diffuses out of the stomata into the outside air. As the spongy cells become short of water they take it up from the xylem vessels present in the veins which in turn take it from the xylem vessels in the stem and roots. Process by which plant losses water from the leaves in the form of water vapour is called transpiration. The movement of water from the roots through the stem to the leaves as a result of transpiration is called transpiration stream. For testing water, cobalt chloride paper is used which turns pink when it comes into contact with water.
Flower contains the reproductive part of a plant SEPAL: small tough, leaf-like structure group of sepals lay over the bud CALYX: the sepals form a ring called the calyx PETALS: colour and scent attract insects to pollinate the flower COROLLA: petals form a ring called corolla Inside the corolla are the STAMENS
STAMEN: male part of the flower Stamen has two parts:(1) Stalk called the filament(2) Pollen producing organ called the anther CARPEL (PISTIL): female part of the flower Carpel has three parts:(1)Pollen receiving surface called stigma(2) Beneath the stigma is the style which is connected to the ovary(3) Ovary contains one or more ovules
Types of fruit Dry fruit May form pods – pea and beans May form woody nuts – acorns, hazelnut, maize Succulent fruit They have a soft fleshy part Seed may be inside a woody skin which forms a stone – cherry, peach Fruit may have large number of smaller seeds and not stone – tomato, oranges False fruit Fleshy part of the fruit does not grow from part of the flower but from other tissues – apples, pear, strawberry