Plant Organization


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Plant Organization

  1. 1. Plant Organization Marjay L. Magana III-1 Aluminium Sir Sherwin Maningas
  2. 2. General Characteristics of Plants
  3. 3. <ul><li>multicellular, primarily terrestial eukaryotes with well develop tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>autotrophic by photosynthesis, contain chlorophylls a and b , carotenoids, and other pigments </li></ul><ul><li>store starch in chloroplast, cell wall contains cellulose </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>protect the developing embryo from drying out by providing it with water and nutrients within the female reproductive structure. </li></ul><ul><li>alternation of generation's life cycle (2-generation life cycle : sporophyte and gametophyte phases) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Main Divisions
  6. 6. Non vascular Plants
  7. 7. <ul><li>consist of three groups: liverworts (Hepatophyta), hornworts (Anthocerotophyta), and mosses (Bryophyta) </li></ul><ul><li>lack vascular tissue </li></ul><ul><li>no true roots, stems, and leaves; anly root-like, stem-like, and leaf-like structures </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>usually small, the largest is no more than 20 cm tall </li></ul><ul><li>found in moist habitats </li></ul><ul><li>dominant independent, photosynthetic gametophyte </li></ul><ul><li>dependent sporophyte, attached to and derives its nourishment from the gametophyte ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Vascular Plants
  10. 10. Seedless Vascular Plants - include the ferns (Pteridophyta) and its allies-whisk ferns (Psilotophyta), quillworts, club and spike mosses (Lycopodophyta), and horsetail (Equisetophyta) -with vascular tissues-xylem and phloem -with true roots, stems, and leaves -dominant pothosynthetic sporophyte -independent gametophyte
  11. 11. Seed Vascular Plants - include the gymnosperms (naked seed) and angiosperms (enclosed seed) -with vascular tissues-xylem and phloem -with true roots, stems and leaves -dominant photosynthetic sporophyte -dependent gametophyte (seed vascular)
  12. 12. 1.Gymnosperms -cone-bearing plants -include conifers or pine (Pinophyta), cycads (Cycadophyta), ginkgo(Ginkgophyta), and gnetophytes (Gnetophyta)
  13. 13. 2.Angiosperms -fruit-bearing or flowering plants (Magnoliophyta) -divided into dicot ( class Magnoliopsida ) and monocot (class Liliopsida)
  14. 14. a. Dicot -more primitive than the monocots -embryo has two cotyledon -floral parts in 4's or 5's or multiples of 4's or 5's -mostly woody, some herbaceous stems -oval or palmate leaves with net-like venation -taproot stem
  15. 15. b. Monocot -more advance by the dicots -embryo has one cotyledon -floral parts in 3's or multiples of 3's -usually herbaceous, soft and green stems -narrow shaped leaves with parallel venation -fibrous root system
  17. 17. <ul><li>classified into primary and secondary tissues responsible for primary and secondary growth respectively </li></ul><ul><li>-primary growth refers to increase in height and secondary growth refers to increase in diameter and formation of woody structure </li></ul><ul><li>divided into four types: meristems, dermal, ground fundamental, and vascular </li></ul>
  18. 18. Meristematic Tissues
  19. 19. <ul><li>also called embryonic or growth tissue </li></ul><ul><li>composed of unique, differentiated small actively dividing cells </li></ul><ul><li>have thin walls and large nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>lack conspicuous vacuoles and intercellular spaces </li></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Meristematic Tissues
  21. 21. 1.Terminal or apical meristems -located at the tips of roots and meristems -responsible for stablishing patterns and producing new, genetically health cells
  22. 22. 2.Intercalary meristems -portions of apical meristems separated from the apex during development -lie below the node and at the base of stem of grasses -disappear when transformed into permanent tissue
  23. 23. 3.Lateral meristems -composed of initial cells that divided chiefly in one plane -increase the diameter of the organ
  24. 24. <ul><li>Derivatives of Meristems 1. Protoderm -forms the dermal tissues; irreplaceable </li></ul><ul><li>2.Procambium-forms the vascular tissues </li></ul><ul><li>3.Ground meristems -forms the ground tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Dermal Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>cover of body plant </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for absorption of water and minerals, secretion of cuticle, protection against herbivores, control gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>have few intercellular space </li></ul>
  25. 26. 1.Cuticle -composed of fatty material, water-proof cutin -covered by epiticular wax -outer covering of leaves, particularly the upper surface -protects the plant for dessication and microbes 2.Epidermal Cells -in leaves and young green stems, the only intercellular spaces are the stomata surrounded by guard cells -responsible for gas exchange and cellular recognition
  26. 27. 3.Trichomes -unicellular or multicellular outgrowths from the epidermal cells, eg. cotton fibers, menthol of peppermint, and root hairs -responsible for nutrition and absorption and protection from herbivores and humans
  27. 28. Fate of Epidermis -short-leave in many plants -repalce by a secondary dermal tissue- the periderm Fundamental Ground Tissues form the bulk of the of the softer parts of plants include the pith and cortex of stem, leaf tissues except for epidermis and veins, and major portion of fruits responsible for storsge, basic metabolism and support
  28. 29. Parenchyma ( Greek, para , beside; en + chein ,to pour in) -most common and most abundant plant tissue -occur in all organisms of higher plants -have long-lived protoplast, large vacuoles ,and thin walls
  29. 31. 1.Chlorenchyma Cells -contains chloroplast for photosynthesis
  30. 32. 2.Aerenchyma Cells -parenchyma with prominent intercellular spaces to improve gas exchange and provide maximum support
  31. 33. 3.Transfer Cells -parenchyma specialized for short-distance transport of solutes -occur in areas of high solute transport along the conducting cells of xylem and phloem
  32. 34. Collenchyma (Greek , kolla ,glue) -composed of elongated cells with unevenly thickened stretchable cell walls, cells are often in standards or as a cylinders beneath the epidermis -support the growing regions of the shoot-expanding leaves, petiole,and elongating stems