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PLANT KINGDOM
The Main Characteristics of Plants1. Contain chlorophyll and carry out   photosynthesis2. Possess a cellulose cell wall3. ...
Four groups in the plant kingdom 1. BRYOPHYTES (mosses) 2. PTERIDOPHYTES (ferns) 3. CONIFERS (gymnosperms) 4. ANGIOSPERMS ...
BRYOPHYTES  Mosses
PTERIDOPHYTES(ferns)
CONIFERS (gymnosperms)
ANGIOSPERMS(flowering plants)
Characteristics      of BRYOPHYTES   Mosses
Size of bryophytes  is limited as they do not have  vascular issue  (phloem and xylem)                           40 cm t...
Bryophytes have: very simple structure (thallus), having no  proper roots, leaves or stems hair-like structures  (rhizoi...
Bryophytes are found in damp &           shady places Waxy cuticle is absent or if present, is  inefficient
Bryophytes are mainly found in           damp places as male sex cells need water to swim in
Bryophytes reproduce asexually by spores found in capsules
Characteristics of PTERIDOPHYTESFerns
Pteridophytes (ferns) have: Roots    because they have vascular Stems              tissue Leaves                  [rhiz...
Ferns have leaf-like:fronds
Ferns have better anchorage          than mossesFern                   Tiny rhizoids in moss.
Ferns can attain   considerable  sizes (20 m): as they have  vascular tissue i.e. ferns have:    support    long-dista...
Ferns can live in drier environments       than mosses because: a waxy layer waterproofs the plant’s  surfaces to reduce ...
Ferns can live in drier environments        than mosses BUT: grow best in damp, shady places
Ferns reproduce asexually by : spores found on frondsA cluster of sporangia    full of spores.
Ferns reproduce also sexually Ferns need water for reproduction like  mosses Male sex cell of a fern. Flagella help it to...
Question: SEP, 2011Give a biological explanation for each of thefollowing statements.Ferns are much better adapted to life...
Algae are not adapted to live on land for twomain reasons.Algae have no protection against drying up andlack supporting ti...
Question: MAY, 2004Bryophytes and ferns are two major groups ofthe Plant kingdom. Complete the table belowby marking with ...
Characteristic                        Bryophytes   FernsLive only in damp shady places.Do not have proper roots but haverh...
Characteristic                           Bryophytes   FernsLive only in damp shady places.              Do not have prope...
Characteristic                        Bryophytes   FernsLive only in damp shady places.           Do not have proper root...
Characteristic                        Bryophytes   FernsLive only in damp shady places.           Do not have proper root...
Characteristic                        Bryophytes   FernsLive only in damp shady places.           Do not have proper root...
Characteristic                        Bryophytes   FernsLive only in damp shady places.           Do not have proper root...
Characteristic                        Bryophytes   FernsLive only in damp shady places.           Do not have proper root...
Characteristic                        Bryophytes   FernsLive only in damp shady places.           Do not have proper root...
Question: MAY, 20101. Explain why bryophytes tend to be small   plants while ferns are larger plants. (2)   Bryophytes are...
Question: MAY, 20102. Ferns colonise drier areas than bryophytes.   Explain. (2)   As ferns have an efficient waxy cuticle...
Characteristics of CONIFERS This group is also called gymnosperms
Conifers are large plants with:         needle-like leaves
Most conifers are evergreen
Seeds of conifers are: produced in cones said to be naked, i.e. are not enclosed by a  fruit                            ...
ANGIOSPERMS (flowering plants)
Angiosperms produce flowers and then seeds seeds are enclosed in a fruit
Angiosperms Range from:herbs              massive trees
Two groups of flowering plants               exist: Monocotyledonous  e.g. grass, wheat, oat,  palm tree Dicotyledonous ...
Differences between:  monocots & dicots
monocots             dicotsLong & slender leaf   Broad leafParallel veins        Branching veins
monocots          dicotsFibrous root   Main or Tap   system      root system
monocots           dicots                      Flower parts inFlower parts in 3’s      4’s or 5’s
monocots                    dicotsOne cotyledon in            Two cotyledons seed [maize]                in seed [pea]    ...
Question: SEP, 1997Fill in the table below using a tick () to meanthat the feature is present and a cross () toshow that...
Monocot   Dicot                                         plant    plantFloral parts are arranged in threesor in multiples o...
Monocot   Dicot                                         plant    plantFloral parts are arranged in threesor in multiples o...
Plant classification
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Plant classification

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Plant classification

  1. 1. PLANT KINGDOM
  2. 2. The Main Characteristics of Plants1. Contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis2. Possess a cellulose cell wall3. Are multicellular
  3. 3. Four groups in the plant kingdom 1. BRYOPHYTES (mosses) 2. PTERIDOPHYTES (ferns) 3. CONIFERS (gymnosperms) 4. ANGIOSPERMS (flowering plants)
  4. 4. BRYOPHYTES Mosses
  5. 5. PTERIDOPHYTES(ferns)
  6. 6. CONIFERS (gymnosperms)
  7. 7. ANGIOSPERMS(flowering plants)
  8. 8. Characteristics of BRYOPHYTES Mosses
  9. 9. Size of bryophytes is limited as they do not have vascular issue (phloem and xylem) 40 cm the tallest species is about 40 cm high
  10. 10. Bryophytes have: very simple structure (thallus), having no proper roots, leaves or stems hair-like structures (rhizoids) on the lower surface to absorb moisture Thallus Rhizoids
  11. 11. Bryophytes are found in damp & shady places Waxy cuticle is absent or if present, is inefficient
  12. 12. Bryophytes are mainly found in damp places as male sex cells need water to swim in
  13. 13. Bryophytes reproduce asexually by spores found in capsules
  14. 14. Characteristics of PTERIDOPHYTESFerns
  15. 15. Pteridophytes (ferns) have: Roots because they have vascular Stems tissue Leaves [rhizome]
  16. 16. Ferns have leaf-like:fronds
  17. 17. Ferns have better anchorage than mossesFern Tiny rhizoids in moss.
  18. 18. Ferns can attain considerable sizes (20 m): as they have vascular tissue i.e. ferns have:  support  long-distance transport
  19. 19. Ferns can live in drier environments than mosses because: a waxy layer waterproofs the plant’s surfaces to reduce water loss Note shiny surface due to a waxy layer.
  20. 20. Ferns can live in drier environments than mosses BUT: grow best in damp, shady places
  21. 21. Ferns reproduce asexually by : spores found on frondsA cluster of sporangia full of spores.
  22. 22. Ferns reproduce also sexually Ferns need water for reproduction like mosses Male sex cell of a fern. Flagella help it to swim towards the female sex organ.
  23. 23. Question: SEP, 2011Give a biological explanation for each of thefollowing statements.Ferns are much better adapted to life on landthan algae. (5)
  24. 24. Algae are not adapted to live on land for twomain reasons.Algae have no protection against drying up andlack supporting tissue.Ferns have an efficient waxy cuticle andvascular tissue to help in support and long-distance transport of materials. Algae in aquarium.
  25. 25. Question: MAY, 2004Bryophytes and ferns are two major groups ofthe Plant kingdom. Complete the table belowby marking with a  if the characteristic givenapplies for the particular group. Certaincharacteristics may apply to both groups. (9)
  26. 26. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places.Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids.Have a proper vascular system.Can reproduce by means of spores.Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  27. 27. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids.Have a proper vascular system.Can reproduce by means of spores.Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of this group.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  28. 28. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but have rhizoids.Have a proper vascular system.Can reproduce by means of spores.Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  29. 29. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  30. 30. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.  Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  31. 31. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.  Can grow to considerable sizes. Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  32. 32. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.  Can grow to considerable sizes. Liverworts are a member of this group. [Not in syllabus]The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  33. 33. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.  Can grow to considerable sizes. Liverworts are a member of this group. [Not in syllabus]The leaves have a waxy layer to cut down water loss.
  34. 34. Question: MAY, 20101. Explain why bryophytes tend to be small plants while ferns are larger plants. (2) Bryophytes are small as they lack vascular tissue. This means that they cannot transport materials over long distances. Bryophytes cannot support themselves due to lack of xylem. Better anchorage in ferns by roots rather than rhizoids in bryophytes.
  35. 35. Question: MAY, 20102. Ferns colonise drier areas than bryophytes. Explain. (2) As ferns have an efficient waxy cuticle. The waxy cuticle is either absent or inefficient in bryophytes.
  36. 36. Characteristics of CONIFERS This group is also called gymnosperms
  37. 37. Conifers are large plants with:  needle-like leaves
  38. 38. Most conifers are evergreen
  39. 39. Seeds of conifers are: produced in cones said to be naked, i.e. are not enclosed by a fruit A naked seed
  40. 40. ANGIOSPERMS (flowering plants)
  41. 41. Angiosperms produce flowers and then seeds seeds are enclosed in a fruit
  42. 42. Angiosperms Range from:herbs massive trees
  43. 43. Two groups of flowering plants exist: Monocotyledonous e.g. grass, wheat, oat, palm tree Dicotyledonous e.g. poppy, peach tree, oak
  44. 44. Differences between: monocots & dicots
  45. 45. monocots dicotsLong & slender leaf Broad leafParallel veins Branching veins
  46. 46. monocots dicotsFibrous root Main or Tap system root system
  47. 47. monocots dicots Flower parts inFlower parts in 3’s 4’s or 5’s
  48. 48. monocots dicotsOne cotyledon in Two cotyledons seed [maize] in seed [pea] Embryo plant
  49. 49. Question: SEP, 1997Fill in the table below using a tick () to meanthat the feature is present and a cross () toshow that the feature is absent. (6)
  50. 50. Monocot Dicot plant plantFloral parts are arranged in threesor in multiples of three.Floral parts arranged in fours orfives or multiples of these.Leaves are the main photosyntheticorgans.Have a tap root system.Parallel veins found on leaves.Plants lack vascular bundles in theirstems or roots.
  51. 51. Monocot Dicot plant plantFloral parts are arranged in threesor in multiples of three.  Floral parts arranged in fours orfives or multiples of these.  Leaves are the main photosyntheticorgans.  Have a tap root system.  Parallel veins found on leaves.  Plants lack vascular bundles in theirstems or roots.  

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