Lexical categories
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  • 1. Native-speaker Intuitions about Words • We have intuitions about the existence of: – words Lexical Categories – syntactic categories: words are not all of the (or Parts of Speech) same kind (or category) 1 2 Words and word-level categories Acoustic wave forms (lexical categories) My brother will meet a friend from college Kay saw two pieces. at the station. Det N Aux V Det N P My brother will meet a friend from N P Det N Adv K..ay....s.......aw...t......wo...p.....ie....c.......e college at the station soon. 3 4 Acoustic wave forms A paradox? You wore a lily. There is no acoustic evidence for the existence of words as independent units, yet we have intuitions that words exist. Y......ou...w..o....re...a.....l..i......l...y...... 5 6 1
  • 2. Word-level categories: Word-level categories: phonological evidence phonological evidence (1) a. We need to increase productivity. (5) a. We want to record this movie. b. Do you have my record? b. We need an increase in productivity. (6) a. We want to reCORD this movie. (2) a. We need to inCREASE productivity. b. Do you have my REcord? b. We need an INcrease in productivity. 7 8 Word-level categories: Word-level categories: morphological evidence morphological evidence Verbs: -ed, -s, -ing Adjectives: -er, -est Base (Past) Present Gerund walk walked walks walking tall-er, tall-est; short er short est tall er tall est; short-er, short-est talk talked talks talking show showed shows showing *child-er child-est child *childed *childs *childing 9 10 Word-level categories: Word-level categories: morphological evidence morphological evidence Adverbs: -ly Nouns: -s (number) sad-ly, desperate-ly, aggressive-ly y p y gg y • idiot-s idiot s *child-ly, *walk-ly *idiotic-s, *small-s, *big-s Prepositions: no inflection 11 12 2
  • 3. Categories Adverb: property or manner of action quickly, intelligently, happily, surely - Semantic Definition: Preposition: locations, instruments, action Noun: person, place, thing, concept modifiers Bill, man, Boston, pencil, tranquility in (the garden), near ( ( g ), (Fred), with (a knife) ), ( ) Verb: action, state hit, jump, love, appreciate, know Adjective: property, attribute happy, pretty, big, misdirected 13 14 What are these categories? Functional categories These categories are usually associated with a under locate particular kind of a phrase. Chicago be Determiner: (the, a, this, that) requires a noun to knowledge exquisite form a phrase: the man, a girl preview slowly Degree Adverbs: (so, very, more) forms a phrase with an adjective or an adverb: very pretty, very quickly, so tall, so happily. 15 16 Conjunction: (and, but, or) form a sentence or a Jabberwocky phrase from 2 sentences or phrases Through the Looking Glass of the same type. by Lewis Carroll I studied chemistry and Bill studied ‘Twas brillig and the slithy toves linguistics. did gyre and gimble in the wabe: Mary studied but Bill played hockey. All mimsy were the borogroves, y g , You can serve or receive the ball. And the mome raths outgrabe. “Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!” 17 18 3
  • 4. ‘Twas brillig and the slithy toves Adj N did gyre and gimble in the wabe: V V All mimsy were the borogroves, “Somehow it seems to fill my head with ideas – N only I don’t exactly know what they are!” y y y And the mome raths outgrabe. g Adj or N N V - Alice Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch! 19 Adj N 20 Word-level Categories Word-level Categories Syntactic Evidence: Distribution Tests Syntactic Evidence: Distribution Tests Syntactic Frame Syntactic Frame Noun frame: Det _____ Verb frame: AUX _____________ e.g., th problem, a cat, some students the bl t t d t e.g., will want, should go, can fl ill t h ld fly The/a/some __ can be a pain in the neck. They could __ . Some chores can be a pain in the neck. They could leave. *Some destroy can be a pain in the neck. *They could problem. / *They could small. 21 22 Word-level Categories Word-level Categories Syntactic Evidence: Distribution Tests Syntactic Evidence: Distribution Tests Syntactic Frame Syntactic Frame Adjective frame 1: Det ___ Adverb frame: Degree Adv ___ e.g., th strange f t a nice d the t fact, i day e.g., very quickly, quite generously i kl it l Adjective frame 2: Degree Adv ___ Adverbial frame: He [VP treats her] ___ e.g., very strange, extremely nice e.g., treats her nicely This is very __. This is very interesting. Adverbials: adverbs, PPs, etc. e.g., treats her with respect. *This is very interest. 23 24 4
  • 5. Word-level Categories Word-level Categories Syntactic Evidence: Distribution Tests Syntactic Evidence: Distribution Tests Syntactic Frame Syntactic Frame Determiner frame:__ (Adj) Noun Preposition frame:right __ e.g., the problem, a gray cat, some talented students e.g., right under the table, right around the corner He wrote ___ other books. He found it right ___ the shelf. He wrote the/those/some other books. He found it right on the shelf. *He wrote interest other books. * He found it right wooden the shelf. 25 26 5