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General linguistics

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General linguistics

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General linguistics

  1. 1. General Linguistics Presented by Zhian Fadhil Asaad University of Sulaimani English Department MA First Semester 2012-2013
  2. 2. An Introduction Language in general and particular can be studied from different points of view. Therefore, the field of linguistics as a whole can be divided into several subfields according to the point of view. The first distinction to be drawn is between general and descriptive linguistics. It corresponds to the distinction between studying language in general and describing particular languages.
  3. 3. General and descriptive linguistics are by no means unrelated. Each depends, explicitly or implicitly upon the other: general linguistics supplies the concepts and categories in terms of which particular languages are to be analysed; descriptive linguistics, in its turn, provides the data which confirm or refute the propositions and theories put forward in general linguistics. For example, the general linguist might formulate the hypothesis that all languages have nouns and verbs. The descriptive linguist might refute this with empirical evidence that there is at least one language in the description of which the distinction between nouns and verbs cannot be established. But in order to refute, or confirm, the hypothesis the descriptive linguist must operate with some concepts of ‘noun’ and ‘verb’ which have been supplied to him by the general linguist. (Lyons, John. 1981. Language and Linguistics: An Introduction, p: 34-37
  4. 4. What is General Linguistics? General Linguistics:  Is the scientific study of human language in all its manifestations and usage near & far, present & past without restriction on time, place or culture.  It supplies the concepts and categories in term of which particular languages are to be analysed. (Lyon:1981,p34)  It's the scientific study of the theoretical bases for describing language and methods of investigating linguistic phenomena.
  5. 5. What does General Linguistics Study? General Linguistics studies: The connection between linguistics and other fields of learning, including dialectical materialism, logic, and psychology (language represents consciousness in action). The connection between linguistics and historical materialism, inasmuch as the development of language is conditioned by the structure of society and social processes.
  6. 6. It also studies the relationship between linguistics and semiotics (language is the most universal system of signs used by society), as well as the connection between linguistics and physiology and acoustics (language is materialized and embodied in the sounds of speech). general linguistics studies the social functions of language, the relationship between language and social processes (the dependence of the form of a language at any given period on social processes), and the reflection of these social processes in the social and territorial differentiation of language and in its structural and stylistic variation .
  7. 7. General Linguistics feature: One feature of general linguistics is a dual approach to the study of language-a structural and social approach engendered by the very nature of language. From the standpoint of structural linguistics, general linguistics studies language as an integrated structure (consisting of interrelated and interacting phonetic, phonological, morphological, syntactical, and other systems), with internal rules specific to each language. From the standpoint of sociolinguistics. www.google.com /Encyclopedia

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