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  1. 1. LEXIS Chapter 2: Describing the English Language. Harmer (2007) Power Point prepared by Prof. Estela and Liliana Monserrat, UNLPam. Facultad de Cs. Humanas Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras
  2. 2. LEXIS: Vocabulary of a language <ul><li>Word meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors and idioms </li></ul><ul><li>Collocations </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical phrases </li></ul>
  3. 3. Word Meaning <ul><li>Problem of polysemy , the same word can have many different meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be resolved by seeing the word in context. </li></ul>
  4. 4. A word in relation to others <ul><li>ANTONYMS: empty/full </li></ul><ul><li>SYNONYMS: dear/expensive/costly, slight changs of meaning: Semantic fields: see, watch, glance peer, stare. </li></ul><ul><li>HYPONYMY: Superordinate (fruit), hyponyms (orange, pear, peach, strawberry) </li></ul><ul><li>CONNOTATION: Dont’ be cheecky! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Metaphorical use of words: <ul><li>The industry has promised to go green. </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein , who was believed to be dumb up to the age of 16, turned out to be a genius. </li></ul><ul><li>To get to the bank, turn right at the corner of Garibaldi and H. Lagos street. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Idioms and metaphors <ul><li>Ophelia: ‘ Tis brief my lord. </li></ul><ul><li>Hamlet: As woman’s love. </li></ul><ul><li>Similes: ..be thou as chaste as ice, as pure as snow, thou shall not escape calumny…To a nunnery go, and quickly too.. Why would thoust be a breeder of sinners? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Word combinations <ul><li>Fast asleep, a light sleep, wide awake ( lexemes, Crystal 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Clenched fist, but not clenched eyebrows…to frown </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical phases: traffic lights, workshop, homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Idiomatic expressions: fall in love, a close shave, an only child. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Michael Lewis (1993) The Lexical Approach <ul><li>Lexical Units : I’ll become archetypal: </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll help you </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll give you a ring. (Formulaic language) </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>We can use words as prefabricated chunks, or within templates provided by grammar. </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Pinker (1999:26):” The mind analyses language as some mixture of memorised chunks and rule-governed assemblies”. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bibliography <ul><li>Harmer J. (2007) The Practice of the English Language , Pearson Longman </li></ul>