The Relationship of Linguistics to Language Teaching the general principles LINGUISTIC in which languages are constructed Linguistics Language TeachingBoth takes LANGUAGE as their subject.
The Relation of Linguistics to Language Teaching ACHIEVEMENTS EFFECTIVE OF LANGUAGELINGUISTIC INQUIRY TEACHING Linguistics APPLIED LINGUISTICS Language Teaching
What is Applied Linguistics?Burns (2009) stated that Applied Linguistics meanstaking language and language theories as the basis to:
History of Applied Linguistics The term reflected the insights of structural or functional linguists that 1950s could be applied to second language teaching and to first language. (Halliday, M., et al. 1964) Expanded to include language 1960s assessment, language policy, and second language acquisition.
History of Applied Linguistics Became a problem-driven field rather than theoretical linguistics. Applied 1970s linguistics also included solution of language-related problems in the real world. Viewed as problem driven and real- world based rather than theory driven 1990s and disconnected from real language use. (Widdowson, H., et al. 1992)
• Changes in language teaching methods throughout history have reflected the development of linguistic theories.• From the 17th to the 19th centuries, linguistics was characterized by traditional grammar.• The interest in the analysis of vernaculars (grammars, grammar schools, grammarians) favoured one method: “GRAMMAR TRANSLATION”
EARLY 20th CENTURY• The emphasis was back on the “USE” of a language rather than on its “ANALYSIS”.• The “DIRECT METHOD” FRANCOIS GOUIN (1880) also known as the “NATURAL METHOD” or “NATURAL APPROACH” gained favour.
20th CENTURY “APPROACHES” TO LANGUAGE TEACHING
MAIN APPROACHES BY INFLUENCE • Language is rule- governed.COGNITIVE • The emphasis is on cognitive behavior (not habit APPROACH formation; Skinner s cognitive conditioning) • Learning a foreign languageAFFECTIVE – is a process of selfHUMANISTIC realization and of relating to other people APPROACH
MAIN APPROACHES BY INFLUENCE • Language acquisitionCOMPREHENSION occurs if only the goal of APPROACH the language teaching is communication. • The purpose ofCOMMUNICATIVE language (the goal of APPROACH teaching) is communication.
Syllabus Design• Syllabus is THE DESCRIPTION OF PLANNING AND FRAMEWORK FOR A COURSE OF STUDY, consist of the learning goals, objectives, contents, processes, resources and means of evaluation planned for students.• In brief , a syllabus can be described as a statement of what is to be learnt. It reflects language and linguistic performance. (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987)
Difference between Syllabus and Curriculum Curriculum• Curriculum is wider term as compared with syllabus.• Curriculum covers all the Syllabus activities and arrangements made by the institution Scheme of• Syllabus is limited to a work particular subject of a particular class. Lesson plan
Product Oriented • A list of grammatical structure, leadingSTRUCTURAL/ to an understanding of the grammatical GRAMMAR system • Main organising foundation • Relates to situational contexts • Principle – teach language that occursSITUATIONAL in situations • E.g.: seeing dentist, meeting new people • Emphasizes on communication purpose & conceptual meaning ofFUNCTIONAL language • E.g.: requesting , offering, agreeing
Process Oriented • Use tasks and activities to encourage students to utilize language. TASK-BASED • Task – relevant to real world, meaningful • Based on learners’ personality and experiencesLEARNER- LED • Learners – be involved in the implementation of the syllabus design as far as possible • To develop overall competence – improve basic skillsPROPORTIONAL • Syllabus – dynamic, not static to get feedback and flexibility
Language Activities Language activities (games) LINGUISTICS COMMUNICATIVE Hadfield (1999) ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES• promotes active • noise learning • class control• motivation • timing
Sorting, ordering and arranging Information Board gapExchanging Types of Guessing language games Labeling Search Role- Matching play
Benefits Of Test In Language Teaching• Tests are very useful instruments that have the power to inform and influence
Functions Of TestsFEEDBACK FUNCTION• improves the teaching and learning for both teachers and studentsASSESSMENT FUNCTION• focuses on the result of language teachingBACKWASH FUNCTION• assesses whether the teaching goal is appropriate, valid and to what degree it has been achieved
Language Testing• VALIDITY refers to the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure.• RELIABILITY refers to whether a test produces the consistent results when given to the same candidates twice in succession.• EFFICIENCY involves questions of economy, ease of administration, scoring, and interpretation of results.
The Discrete Point TestThe Diagnosis The Integrative Test Test Types of language TheAptitude testing The Test Communicative Test The Proficiency Test The Achievement Test
REFERENCES• Charles E. Townsend Princeton University (phoenix.princeton.edu) Topic: Linguistics and Language Teaching• Communicative Language Teaching: Linguistic Theory and Classroom Practice SANDRA J. SAVIGNON• Relation between Linguistics & Language Teaching.pdf• Linguistics and Language Teaching.ppt