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Understanding Games and Gamification for Learning

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Here are my slides from my DevLearn 2012 session.

Here are my slides from my DevLearn 2012 session.


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  • 1. Understanding the Value of Games and  Gamification for Serious Learning By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning and Instruction  October 31, 2012Twitter:@kkapp gamify01
  • 2. Google “Kapp Notes” 2012 New Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” September 2011 Training Quarterly ArticleImproving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer September 2012 Training Quarterly ArticleFive Gaming Elements for Effective e‐Learning
  • 3. Agenda 1 2 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 3 What elements from games can be added to traditional e-learning?
  • 4. Are games/simulations effective for learning? How does Gamification fit  into all of this?
  • 5. Simulation/games have to be fun to be educational?  Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • 6. FISHY!Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games.Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  • 7. Simulation/games build more confidence for on  the job application of learned knowledge than  classroom instruction.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • 8. Fact, 20% higher  confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • 9. In a Meta-Analysis…Knowledge retention forgame/simulation was 17%higher than a lecture. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  • 10. Fact! Delivery Method vs. % Higher Game/Simulation Lecture 17% Discussion 5%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • 11. Fact! Retention/ % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% Declarative 11% Procedural 14%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • 12. Qualitative Analysis! Effects on Learning % of Compared to Traditional Studies Instruction Positive Effect for Games 52% Mixed Results 25% No Difference 18% *One Study‐Games better than traditional instruction. Ke, F. (2009) A qualitative meta-analysis of computer games as learning tools. In R.E. Ferding (Ed.) , Effectiveelectronic gaming in education (ol. 1, pp. 1-32). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. .Review of 65 studies.Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  • 13. Fact! It wasn’t the game, it was Retention level of activity in the game. % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in 14% the game leads to learning. Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • 14. Fact: Instructional games should be embedded in  instructional programs that include  debriefing and feedback.  Engagement Instructional support to help learners  Educational understand how to use the game increases  Simulation instructional effectiveness of the gaming  Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005‐004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” g
  • 15. Example. Image Courtesy of Enspire Learning
  • 16. TransferThe ability of simulations to teach skills that transfer to real‐life, on‐the‐job situations seems abundantly positive…. In 22 out of 26 studies, trainees demonstrated equal or  superior transfer to the control group from simulations. Shenan Hahn ADL Research and Evaluation Team  Transfer of Training from Simulations in Civilian and Military Workforces: Perspectives from the Current Body of Literature
  • 17. Evidence‐Based Recommendations 1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning. 2) Don’t focus on “fun.” 3) Craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to  increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning.4) Embed the game within a larger curriculum (set up,  debrief)5) Provide unlimited access to game/simulation. 
  • 18. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
  • 19. Gaming (Serious ) Games Gamification Simulations Course HeroWhole Part Toys Playful Design Legos iPhone PlayingFrom Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”, Deterding, S. et. al
  • 20. http://www.coursehero.com/courses/
  • 21. 2 weeks after launching Courses (powered by gamification), CourseHeroreceived 350 suggested edits to existing courses and 122 requests for new courses. Another 68 people offered to augment existing courses by creating their own course to be hosted on coursehero.com.
  • 22. For Gamified courses, the time on site for the Courses are nearly three times as long as time onsite for all of coursehero.com.Social sharing of achievements increased nearly 400 percent in  three months.
  • 23. … it’s not all about points, badges and progress bars.
  • 24. 20% increase in profile completion.
  • 25. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning• Story• Character• Recognition• Levels• Challenges• Chance• Replayability• Aesthetics• Time• Continual Feedback
  • 26. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning• Story• Character• Recognition• NOT Enough Time  Levels• Challenges• Chance• Replayability• Aesthetics• Time• Continual Feedback
  • 27. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Feedback2. Story3. Characters4. Fantasy
  • 28. Feedback
  • 29. The most helpful feedback provides specific  comments  about errors and suggestions for  improvement. It also encourages learners to focus  their attention thoughtfully on the task rather than  on simply getting the right  answer.Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. I., & Zapata‐Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games and embedded assessment to monitor and foster learning: Flow and grow. In U. Ritterfeld, M. J. Cody, & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/LEA. 295‐321.
  • 30. Games like The Sims provide feedback on  many dimensions which provide  opportunities to consider tradeoffs and  higher level cognitive thinking. 
  • 31. Leaderboards provide  opportunities for players to receive feedback about their performance as compared to  others.  Comparative and  relative feedback
  • 32. Focused Feedback encourages activity.
  • 33. Story
  • 34. Learners remember facts better…When presented in a bulletedlist as opposed to whenpresented in a story.Is that Fact or Fishy?
  • 35. FISHY: Researchers have found that the  Yep, People tend to remember facts  human brain has a natural affinity for  more accurately if they encounter  narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. 
  • 36. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
  • 37. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  • 38. Recommendations • Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Use stories that are related to the context of the  desired learning outcome. 
  • 39. We’ve Always Wanted Characters
  • 40. An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner..Is that Fact or Fishy?
  • 41. FISHY: On transfer tests involving different word problems, the  group who had a character generated 30% more correct  answers than the group with on‐screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids  to learning.  A “realistic” character did not facilitate  learning any better than a “cartoon‐like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
  • 42. Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially  with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (characters) even when their functionality and adaptability  are limited. http://codebaby.com/elearning‐solutions/examples/
  • 43. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?A. Person who watched an avatar that did not  look like them runningB. Person who watched an avatar that looked  like them runningC. Person  watching an avatar  that looked like  them loitering /hanging out
  • 44. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like  themselves run, learners were more likely to  run than watching an avatar not like them or  watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology,21 (3), 95-113.
  • 45. If learners watch an avatar that looks  like them exercising & losing weight,  they will subsequently exercise more in  the real world as compared to a control  group.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 2195-113.
  • 46. Malone’s Theory of Intrinsically  Motivating Instruction  Challenge Fantasy CuriosityMalone, T. (1981) . Toward a Theory of intrinsically Motivating Instruction. Cognitive Science, 4. 333-369.
  • 47. Fantasy– There are both cognitive and emotional reasons forevoking fantasy. Cognitively a fantasy can help a learner applyold knowledge to understand new things and help themremember the content. Emotionally, a person can connect withthe experiences and not bring with it “real-world” concerns orfears. Image courtesy of Game On! LearningMalone, T. (1981) . Toward a Theory of intrinsically Motivating Instruction. Cognitive Science, 4. 333-369.
  • 48. Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional  Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” g
  • 49. Re‐design the Instruction to  Start with a Challenge
  • 50. Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Describe and Follow the Investigation Model  How would you turn this into  a challenge?
  • 51. It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do?
  • 52. Curiosity– Game environments can evoke a learner’s curiosityby providing an optimal level of informational complexity and anovel and exciting game space. Cognitive curiosity is evoked bymaking learners believe their knowledge structures areinconsistent or incomplete. Provide surprising and constructivefeedback.Malone, T. (1981) . Toward a Theory of intrinsically Motivating Instruction. Cognitive Science, 4. 333-369.
  • 53. Evidence‐Based Recommendations • Use “Challenge” to engagement learners.• Fantasy is an acceptable and positive element for  instructional games
  • 54. Games can influencepeople to behave in apositive manner.Is that Fact or Fishy?
  • 55. Fact: Games can influence people to behave in a positive manner.Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.  Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211‐221.
  • 56. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  • 57. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  • 58. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  • 59. 22% intervened
  • 60. 56% intervened
  • 61. 1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning. 2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.” 3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase  engagement and interactivity to increase learning.4) Embed the game /simulation into the curriculum. Provide “set‐up,” game‐ time and debrief.5) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.6) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired outcome.7) Use characters/agents to model desired behavior. 8) Use characters/agents to provide feedback and instruction to learners.
  • 62. QUESTIONS?Contact Karl via Twitter or email Twitter:@kkapp kkapp@bloomu.edu