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Karl Kapp - Identifying the “Learning” Elements in Games

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Presenter: Karl Kapp, Co-Founder, 2K Learning

We know that under the right conditions, learning occurs in games…but learning doesn’t occur in all games—even ones intended to lead to learning. Why? What makes a game effective from a learning perspective? What elements lead to learning and what elements detract from learning? This decidedly unacademic presentation provides research-based recommendations and guidelines for creating a game that leads to positive learning outcomes. Learn the best method for including a game into a corporate or K-12 curriculum, discover the number one game feature that leads to impactful learning outcomes and uncover game elements that have been directly linked to learning. Find out how to use empirically-based guidelines to create the outcomes you want to achieve with your serious game.

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Karl Kapp - Identifying the “Learning” Elements in Games

  1. 1. Where is the “learning” in games? Karl Kapp Professor: Bloomsburg University Author: Gamification of Learning and Instruction Twitter:@kkapp
  2. 2. Related Resources… Lynda.com Course: Gamification of LearningYouTube Video Web Site:www.karlkapp.com Books
  3. 3. Co-Founder Game Development Company. www.2klearning.com
  4. 4. For: Notes/Slides Additional Ideas www.karlkapp.com www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes
  5. 5. Why might an educator use games for learning?
  6. 6. Why might an educator use lectures for learning?
  7. 7. Lectures are NOT effective for fostering higher level thinking? Gibbs, G., (1981). Twenty Terrible Reasons for Lecturing, SCED Occasional Paper No. 8, Birmingham. http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/resources/20reasons.html and Bligh, D., (1972). What’s the Use of Lectures? Penguin. Bloom, B. S., (1953). “Thought Processes in Lectures and Discussions.” Journal of General Education Vol. 7. Isaacs, G., (1994). “Lecturing Practices and Note-taking Purposes.” Studies in Higher Education, 19:2.
  8. 8. During lectures students' thoughts involved attempting to solve problems, or synthesize or inter-relate information for 1% of the time. 78% of the lecture is spent in ‘passive thoughts about the subject’ and ‘irrelevant thoughts’.
  9. 9. 21 studies found lecturing to be less effective than: discussion, reading and individual work in class. Lectures are not a very effective way of teaching… if the aim is to teach thinking, or to change attitudes or other higher aims beyond the simple transmission of factual knowledge.
  10. 10. Instruction with learning games yields higher gains in learning and retention than traditional instruction. Statistics are from: Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies Confirmed findings (not statistics): Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies. Review of 39 studies 54% conducted in the last year.
  11. 11. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Over Traditional Training
  12. 12. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Over Traditional Training 17% Higher than Lectures 5% Higher than Discussion
  13. 13. Percentages of Impact Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% It wasn’t the game, it was level of activity in the game. In other words, the engagement of the learner in the game leads to learning.
  14. 14. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics Scott Freemana,1, Sarah L. Eddya, Miles McDonougha, Michelle K. Smithb, Nnadozie Okoroafora, Hannah Jordta, and Mary Pat Wenderotha. PNAS Early Edition (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
  15. 15. Games can promote pro- social behaviors.
  16. 16. First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  17. 17. Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  18. 18. Fostering Pro-Social Behavior Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211-221.
  19. 19. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  20. 20. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  21. 21. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  22. 22. City Crisis
  23. 23. 22% intervened
  24. 24. 56% intervened
  25. 25. Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning.
  26. 26. Engagement PedagogyGame Educational Simulation Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Instructional support to help learners understand how to use the game increases instructional effectiveness of the gaming experience. Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review and discussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  27. 27. Example Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van der Sek E.D. (2013), (February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  28. 28. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple sessions are involved.
  29. 29. Conventional instruction for a one-off is better vs. one game session Multiple game sessions better than multiple conventional sessions Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  30. 30. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups.
  31. 31. With serious games, both learners playing individually and those playing in a group learn more than the comparison group, but learners who play serious games in a group learn more Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  32. 32. While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and work.
  33. 33. A math facts game deployed on a handled computer encouraged learners to complete greater number of problems at an increased level of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty. Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI '04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria.
  34. 34. What elements of games lead to learning?
  35. 35. Challenge Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  36. 36. First Person View Perspective
  37. 37. Third Person View Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288 and research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203.
  38. 38. Third Person View Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288 and research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203. “Seeing oneself as acting in a movie or a play is not merely fantasy or indulgence; it is fundamental to how people work out who it is they are, and may become.” Ben Casey
  39. 39. Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1-9. Flying around a virtual world as a superhero made subjects nicer in the real world. physical world Characters
  40. 40. Why be a Character at All? Research indicates that human social models influence behavior, beliefs and attitudes. Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
  41. 41. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited. Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
  42. 42. Story
  43. 43. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.
  44. 44. Game Examples
  45. 45. Timez Attack
  46. 46. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jordanshapiro/2013/07/01/it-only-takes-about-42-minutes-to-learn-algebra-with-video-games/ Dragon Box 2 Students who played at least 1.5 hours, 92.9% achieved mastery. Of those students who played at least 1 hour, 83.8% achieved mastery. Of those students who played at least 45 minutes, 73.4% achieved mastery.
  47. 47. DimensionM educational video game series for math
  48. 48. Students in the experimental group who played the Tabula Digita video games over an 18 week period scored significantly higher on district math benchmark tests than students in the control group who did not play the video games (p<.001). In fact, the increase in scores for the test group was more than double the increase in score for the control group.
  49. 49. http://iit.bloomu.edu/NSFGame.html http://www.gaming2learn.org/
  50. 50. Group Group Results by Assessment Pre Post Final Game Mean .378 5 .447 .5136 Std. Deviation .167 .168 .169 N 140 125 100 Task Mean Rating Before Mean Rating After Difference After- Before Calculate volume of 3-D shape 2.83 4.00 1.17 Calculate surface area of 3-D shape 2.33 3.83 1.50 Understand concept of conductivity and heat flow 1.50 3.82 2.32 Understand relationship between conductivity & heat flow. 1.17 3.17 2.00 Apply heat flow formula 1.00 3.33 2.33 Understand difference between dead and live load 1.50 3.33 1.83 Survival Master Results
  51. 51. How to embed learning into a game: Example.
  52. 52. 1) An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet specific instructional objectives and was designed as it was intended. 2) While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and work. 3) Instruction with serious games yields higher learning gains than conventional instruction. 4) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups. 5) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple sessions are involved. 6) Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning. 7) Games can influence people to behave in a pro-social manner. Take-Away
  53. 53. Questions And Resources www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes Karl M. Kapp Twitter: @kkapp Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu BLOG: http://karlkapp.com/kapp-notes/ Content torn from the pages. Lynda.com Course: Gamification of Learning
  54. 54. Questions/More Information • Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu • Email: karlkapp@gmail.com • Game Web Site: www.2klearning.com • Twitter: @kkapp • Pinterest: Gamification Happenings • BLOG: http://karlkapp.com/kapp-notes/ • Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/gamificationLI

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