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Where is the “learning” in games?
Karl Kapp
Professor: Bloomsburg University
Author: Gamification of Learning and
Instruct...
Related Resources…
Lynda.com Course: Gamification of LearningYouTube Video
Web Site:www.karlkapp.com
Books
Co-Founder Game
Development
Company.
www.2klearning.com
For:
Notes/Slides
Additional Ideas
www.karlkapp.com
www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes
Why might an educator use
games for learning?
Why might an educator use
lectures for learning?
Lectures are NOT effective for
fostering higher level thinking?
Gibbs, G., (1981). Twenty Terrible Reasons for Lecturing, ...
During lectures students'
thoughts involved
attempting to solve
problems, or synthesize
or inter-relate
information for 1%...
21 studies found
lecturing to be less
effective than:
discussion, reading
and individual work in
class.
Lectures are not a...
Instruction with learning
games yields higher gains
in learning and retention
than traditional instruction.
Statistics are...
Type of
Knowledge
/Retention
% Higher
Declarative 11%
Procedural 14%
Retention 9%
Percentages of Impact Over
Traditional T...
Type of
Knowledge
/Retention
% Higher
Declarative 11%
Procedural 14%
Retention 9%
Percentages of Impact Over
Traditional T...
Percentages of Impact
Type of
Knowledge
/Retention
% Higher
Declarative 11%
Procedural 14%
Retention 9%
It wasn’t the game...
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
Scott Freemana,1, Sarah L. Eddya, M...
Games can promote pro-
social behaviors.
First Experiment indicated that playing the
game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater
willingness to help the Darfurian p...
Second Experiment indicated that playing
the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a
greater role taking and willingness to hel...
Fostering Pro-Social
Behavior
Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.
Jou...
28% helped to
pick up pencils
33% helped to
pick up pencils
67% helped to
pick up pencils
City Crisis
22% intervened
56% intervened
Games Must be Embedded
into the Curriculum to be
Effective for Learning.
Engagement
PedagogyGame
Educational
Simulation
Instructional games should be embedded in
instructional programs that inclu...
Example
Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van der Sek E.D. (2013), (February 4).
A Meta-Analysis of the...
Games are more effective
than traditional instruction
when multiple sessions are
involved.
Conventional instruction for a one-off is better vs. one game session
Multiple game sessions better than
multiple conventi...
Games are more effective
than traditional instruction
when players work in groups.
With serious games, both learners playing
individually and those playing in a group learn
more than the comparison group, ...
While playing a game,
learners will voluntarily do
harder problems and work.
A math facts game deployed on a handled computer
encouraged learners to complete greater number of
problems at an increase...
What elements of games lead
to learning?
Challenge
Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology
for educational...
Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes:
Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encour...
Researchers have found that the
human brain has a natural affinity for
narrative construction.
Yep, People tend to remembe...
Game Examples
Timez
Attack
http://www.forbes.com/sites/jordanshapiro/2013/07/01/it-only-takes-about-42-minutes-to-learn-algebra-with-video-games/
Dra...
DimensionM educational video game series for math
Students in the experimental group who played the Tabula Digita video
games over an 18 week period scored significantly hi...
http://iit.bloomu.edu/NSFGame.html
http://www.gaming2learn.org/
Group
Group Results by
Assessment
Pre Post Final
Game
Mean
.378
5
.447 .5136
Std. Deviation .167 .168 .169
N 140 125 100
T...
How to embed learning into a
game: Example.
1) An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet
specific instructional objectives and was design...
Questions And Resources
www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes
Karl M. Kapp
Twitter: @kkapp
Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu
BLOG: http://karl...
Questions/More Information
• Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu
• Email: karlkapp@gmail.com
• Game Web Site: www.2klearning.com
• Twi...
Where is the learning in games
Where is the learning in games
Where is the learning in games
Where is the learning in games
Where is the learning in games
Where is the learning in games
Where is the learning in games
Where is the learning in games
Where is the learning in games
Where is the learning in games
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Where is the learning in games

  1. 1. Where is the “learning” in games? Karl Kapp Professor: Bloomsburg University Author: Gamification of Learning and Instruction Twitter:@kkapp
  2. 2. Related Resources… Lynda.com Course: Gamification of LearningYouTube Video Web Site:www.karlkapp.com Books
  3. 3. Co-Founder Game Development Company. www.2klearning.com
  4. 4. For: Notes/Slides Additional Ideas www.karlkapp.com www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes
  5. 5. Why might an educator use games for learning?
  6. 6. Why might an educator use lectures for learning?
  7. 7. Lectures are NOT effective for fostering higher level thinking? Gibbs, G., (1981). Twenty Terrible Reasons for Lecturing, SCED Occasional Paper No. 8, Birmingham. http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/resources/20reasons.html and Bligh, D., (1972). What’s the Use of Lectures? Penguin. Bloom, B. S., (1953). “Thought Processes in Lectures and Discussions.” Journal of General Education Vol. 7. Isaacs, G., (1994). “Lecturing Practices and Note-taking Purposes.” Studies in Higher Education, 19:2.
  8. 8. During lectures students' thoughts involved attempting to solve problems, or synthesize or inter-relate information for 1% of the time. 78% of the lecture is spent in ‘passive thoughts about the subject’ and ‘irrelevant thoughts’.
  9. 9. 21 studies found lecturing to be less effective than: discussion, reading and individual work in class. Lectures are not a very effective way of teaching in higher education – especially if the aim is to teach thinking, or to change attitudes or other higher aims beyond the simple transmission of factual knowledge.”
  10. 10. Instruction with learning games yields higher gains in learning and retention than traditional instruction. Statistics are from: Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies Confirmed findings (not statistics): Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies. Review of 39 studies 54% conducted in the last year.
  11. 11. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Over Traditional Training
  12. 12. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Over Traditional Training 17% Higher than Lectures 5% Higher than Discussion
  13. 13. Percentages of Impact Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% It wasn’t the game, it was level of activity in the game. In other words, the engagement of the learner in the game leads to learning.
  14. 14. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics Scott Freemana,1, Sarah L. Eddya, Miles McDonougha, Michelle K. Smithb, Nnadozie Okoroafora, Hannah Jordta, and Mary Pat Wenderotha. PNAS Early Edition (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
  15. 15. Games can promote pro- social behaviors.
  16. 16. First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  17. 17. Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  18. 18. Fostering Pro-Social Behavior Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211-221.
  19. 19. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  20. 20. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  21. 21. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  22. 22. City Crisis
  23. 23. 22% intervened
  24. 24. 56% intervened
  25. 25. Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning.
  26. 26. Engagement PedagogyGame Educational Simulation Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Instructional support to help learners understand how to use the game increases instructional effectiveness of the gaming experience. Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review and discussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  27. 27. Example Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van der Sek E.D. (2013), (February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  28. 28. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple sessions are involved.
  29. 29. Conventional instruction for a one-off is better vs. one game session Multiple game sessions better than multiple conventional sessions Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  30. 30. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups.
  31. 31. With serious games, both learners playing individually and those playing in a group learn more than the comparison group, but learners who play serious games in a group learn more Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  32. 32. While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and work.
  33. 33. A math facts game deployed on a handled computer encouraged learners to complete greater number of problems at an increased level of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty. Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI '04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria.
  34. 34. What elements of games lead to learning?
  35. 35. Challenge Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  36. 36. Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1-9. Flying around a virtual world as a superhero made subjects nicer in the real world. physical world
  37. 37. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.
  38. 38. Game Examples
  39. 39. Timez Attack
  40. 40. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jordanshapiro/2013/07/01/it-only-takes-about-42-minutes-to-learn-algebra-with-video-games/ Dragon Box 2 Students who played at least 1.5 hours, 92.9% achieved mastery. Of those students who played at least 1 hour, 83.8% achieved mastery. Of those students who played at least 45 minutes, 73.4% achieved mastery.
  41. 41. DimensionM educational video game series for math
  42. 42. Students in the experimental group who played the Tabula Digita video games over an 18 week period scored significantly higher on district math benchmark tests than students in the control group who did not play the video games (p<.001). In fact, the increase in scores for the test group was more than double the increase in score for the control group.
  43. 43. http://iit.bloomu.edu/NSFGame.html http://www.gaming2learn.org/
  44. 44. Group Group Results by Assessment Pre Post Final Game Mean .378 5 .447 .5136 Std. Deviation .167 .168 .169 N 140 125 100 Task Mean Rating Before Mean Rating After Difference After- Before Calculate volume of 3-D shape 2.83 4.00 1.17 Calculate surface area of 3-D shape 2.33 3.83 1.50 Understand concept of conductivity and heat flow 1.50 3.82 2.32 Understand relationship between conductivity & heat flow. 1.17 3.17 2.00 Apply heat flow formula 1.00 3.33 2.33 Understand difference between dead and live load 1.50 3.33 1.83 Survival Master Results
  45. 45. How to embed learning into a game: Example.
  46. 46. 1) An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet specific instructional objectives and was designed as it was intended. 2) While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and work. 3) Instruction with serious games yields higher learning gains than conventional instruction. 4) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups. 5) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple sessions are involved. 6) Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning. 7) Games can influence people to behave in a pro-social manner. Take-Away
  47. 47. Questions And Resources www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes Karl M. Kapp Twitter: @kkapp Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu BLOG: http://karlkapp.com/kapp-notes/ Content torn from the pages. Lynda.com Course: Gamification of Learning
  48. 48. Questions/More Information • Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu • Email: karlkapp@gmail.com • Game Web Site: www.2klearning.com • Twitter: @kkapp • Pinterest: Gamification Happenings • BLOG: http://karlkapp.com/kapp-notes/ • Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/gamificationLI

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