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Games In Medical Education


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A presentation on the design of serious games for medical education. This version has images removed for copyright reasons.

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine

Games In Medical Education

  1. 1. <ul><li>Designing Serious Games for Medical Education </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Childs, </li></ul><ul><li>Warwick Medical School </li></ul>
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Defining and distinguishing between games and simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Designing these for education </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples from medical education </li></ul><ul><li>Issues important in design </li></ul>
  3. 3. What makes a game? <ul><li>Effective games have: </li></ul><ul><li>Character role </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosocial moratorium </li></ul><ul><li>Need an understanding of what makes a game playable </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Brannigan, CEO, Caspian Learning: “The first academics want to do is to take all the fun out.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Psycho what? <ul><li>The merging of action and awareness: </li></ul><ul><li>Clear goals and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration on the task at hand </li></ul><ul><li>The paradox of control </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of self-consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>The transformation of time </li></ul>
  5. 5. What makes a simulation? <ul><li>Effective simulations: </li></ul><ul><li>Do not require narrative, character role, scoring </li></ul><ul><li>Do need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>breadth of sensory information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth of sensory information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control of relation of sensors to environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to modify environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual feedback of changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And – can be game and simulation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Learning from games <ul><li>Four models of learning from games </li></ul><ul><li>transmission model (behaviourist) conveying knowledge, drill-and-practice </li></ul><ul><li>user-centred model (experiential) exploring, synthesising and constructing knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>participation model, consider the “wrapper” for the game, educational context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simon Egenfeldt-Nielson, CEO Serious Games Interactive, “a game is just an excuse for reflection” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>modding (de Freitas 2006; 20; Bungie 2007; 25) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other game observations <ul><li>Meaningful play created by entering a “magic circle” (from Huizinga) where objects and events have a “second order reality” (Caillois) </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement as well as immersion. Engagement is deliberate, reflective (from Carr) where text has a “second order reading” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Linking games and education <ul><li>Endogenous v. exogenous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the educational content appropriately integrated with the gaming elements, or just bolted-on? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two most important questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What aspects of the subject matter in question already exhibit ludic features? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And how can a game designer exploit and highlight these aspects? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Linking games and education <ul><li>Is learning content? </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit within game </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit but made explicit through reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Completely avoidable </li></ul>
  10. 11. Simulations <ul><li>Common uses of simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Medbiquitous virtual patient models </li></ul><ul><li>Triage simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Medical education in Immersive Virtual Worlds through </li></ul><ul><li>transmission of information </li></ul><ul><li>roleplay </li></ul><ul><li>Should focus on interaction not information </li></ul>
  11. 12. Interactive Trauma Trainer ref Human Factors in Defence Medicine Ref Birmingham University
  12. 13. Virtual Healthcare ref Naval Research ref Birmingham University
  13. 15. Health care games <ul><li>Made more difficult by </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge imparted through non-verbal, non-textual engagement </li></ul><ul><li>embodied reality involves all the senses </li></ul><ul><li>critical situations may contain all manner of background sensory noise </li></ul><ul><li>scalable implementation across diverse learning environments </li></ul>
  14. 16. Health care games <ul><li>Embedding made easier by use of narrative within the paper-based scenarios already used with students </li></ul><ul><li>Situations already have game-like qualities (identifiable goal, time-dependent, narrative context) </li></ul>
  15. 17. Successful health games <ul><li>Appropriateness of the technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Endogenous not exogenous. </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement and immersion. </li></ul><ul><li>Realness and embodiment. </li></ul>
  16. 18. A solution looking for a problem <ul><li>Good elearning design starts with the pedagogical issue and decides what is the most appropriate technology </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore not only need to answer what can we use a game for? But … </li></ul><ul><li>What is there for which a game is the most appropriate technology? </li></ul>