Imperfect -ar verbs• The imperfect tense is abaabasabaáb used to refer to actions amosabaisaba n in the past that occurred repeatedly.• The imperfect tense is -er verbs, -ir verbsíaíasíaíamosíaisían also used to refer to actions in the past that occurred over an extended period of time.
Modal verbs Conjugate and pair the modal verb with an infinitive to get a new meaning.Vocab Meaning ir+a+infinitive (going to do something)Deber Should, ought to, mustDesear To desire poder+infinitive (are able to do something)Necesitar To need querer+infinitive (want to do something)Poder Can, could, might, be able toquerer Want, would like to deber+infinitive (should do something)Saber Usually, used to tener que+infinitive (to have to do something)soler Know, know how to soler+infinitive (to be accustomed to) necesitar+infinitive (to need something)
Los Adverbios• Most Spanish adverbs are formed by adding -mente to ‣When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the second one uses the -mente ending. the feminine singular form Note that the first adverb is the same as the of the adjective. This ending feminine singular form of the adjective. corresponds to -ly in English. Adj. Fem. form Adv. claro clara claramente constante constante constantemente difícil difícil difícilmente
Progressive Tense ....present ....present the present progressive is hablar: hablando only used to describe an (hablar - ar + action that is in the process ando)trabajar: of taking place. It is not trabajando used for future actions (trabajar - ar +• To form the present ando)estudiar: progressive in Spanish, estudiando combine a form of "estar" (estudiar - ar + ando) with the present participle. comer: comiendo (comer - er + iendo)hacer: haciendo (hacer - er + iendo)vivir: viviendo (vivir - ir + iendo)escribir: escribiendo (escribir - ir + iendo)
Participles ....past ....past To form the past participle, simply drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and add -ado (for -ar verbs) or -ido (for -er, -ir verbs).They were studying. Ellos estaban estudiando ahora.We were selling a novel Estábamos vendiendo una novela.He was eating a lot. Él estaba comiendo mucho.She was leaving in two days. Estaba partiendo en dos días.
Futuro• The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen.• But, the future tense is not infinitive + ending used to express a willingness to do something.• Regular verbs in the future tense are conjugated by adding the following endings to the infinitive form of the verb: -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án.
Future Irregulars • caber • tenerquerervalersabervenir • poner • decir • haber • salir • hacer • poder
Superlatives• Use when you want to say something os the most or least of a 1)Best 2)worst certain quality. 3)oldest• When using a 4)youngest superlative in the noun form, place it 1) El/La mejor after the article. 2) El/La peor 3) El/La mayor• Use the neutral ‘lo’ 4) El/La menor when referring to an idea or concept.
Formal Commands• Change to ‘yo’ Affirmative AND• Change opposite vowel Negative• ar -> e• er/ir -> a T V D I S H E S
Prepositionsehindencima de - on top of, aboveenfrente de - oppositefrente a - opposite, towardsfuera de • al lado de - beside • alrededor de - around, about • antes de - before • cerca de - near, close to • debajo de - under, underneath • delante de - in front of • dentro de - in, inside, into, within
Conditionals• Frequently, the conditional is ía used to express probability, possibility, wonder or ías conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, ía must have or probably. íamos• To conjugate regular -ar, -er and -ir verbs in the íais conditional, simply add one of the following to the infintive: ían
DemonstrativesDemonstrative adjectives are placed beforethe noun and agree in number and genderwith the noun. This That That over there m este ese aquel f esta esa aquella These Those Those over there m estos esos aquellos f estas esas aquellas Aquí Allí Allá