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Libro de Gramatica             (Spanish Grammar Book)Joya Burns
Table of Contents     Concept           Page #    Preterite            3 -car, -gar, -zar        4     SPOCK              ...
Imperfect                               -ar verbs•   The imperfect tense is     abaabasabaáb    used to refer to actions  ...
Preterite-ar                 -er/ir-é                  -í-aste               -iste-ó                  -ió-amos            ...
Preterite Irregulares
-Car, –Gar, -ZarTocar         Jugar         comenzarToque         Jugue         ComenceTocaste       Jugaste       Comenza...
SPOCK        hacer    ir/ser       dar/ver    hice        fui       i    hiciste     fuiste    iste    hizo        fue    ...
Cucaracha andar      anduv- estar      estuv- poder       pud-          -é poner       pus-          -istequerer       qui...
snake/snakeySNAKEDormir STEM CHANGERSDormí                      Y CHANGERSDormimos                       LeerDormiste     ...
Modal verbs         Conjugate and pair the modal verb with         an infinitive to get a new meaning.Vocab       Meaning ...
Los Adverbios• Most Spanish adverbs are  formed by adding -mente to ‣When two adverbs modify the same verb,               ...
Progressive Tense                              ....present                              ....present    the present progres...
Participles                               ....past                               ....past To form the past participle, sim...
Futuro•   The future tense is used to tell    what "will" happen, or what    "shall" happen.•   But, the future tense is n...
Future Irregulars •   caber      • tenerquerervalersabervenir •   poner •   decir •   haber •   salir •   hacer •   poder
Superlatives•   Use when you want to    say something os the    most or least of a                            1)Best 2)wor...
Formal Commands•   Change to ‘yo’          Affirmative                            AND•   Change opposite vowel   Negative•...
Prepositionsehindencima de - on top of, aboveenfrente de - oppositefrente a - opposite, towardsfuera de         • al lado ...
Conditionals•   Frequently, the conditional is    ía    used to express probability,    possibility, wonder or            ...
DemonstrativesDemonstrative adjectives are placed beforethe noun and agree in number and genderwith the noun.             ...
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Grammar book part 2

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Transcript of "Grammar book part 2"

  1. 1. Libro de Gramatica (Spanish Grammar Book)Joya Burns
  2. 2. Table of Contents Concept Page # Preterite 3 -car, -gar, -zar 4 SPOCK 5 Cucaracha 6 Snake/snakey 7 Modal Verbs 8 Los Adverbios 9Progressive Tense 10 Superlatives 11Formals commands 12 Prepositions 13 conditionals 14 Demonstratives 15
  3. 3. Imperfect -ar verbs• The imperfect tense is abaabasabaáb used to refer to actions amosabaisaba n in the past that occurred repeatedly.• The imperfect tense is -er verbs, -ir verbsíaíasíaíamosíaisían also used to refer to actions in the past that occurred over an extended period of time.
  4. 4. Preterite-ar -er/ir-é -í-aste -iste-ó -ió-amos -imos-aron -ieron
  5. 5. Preterite Irregulares
  6. 6. -Car, –Gar, -ZarTocar Jugar comenzarToque Jugue ComenceTocaste Jugaste ComenzasteToco Jugo Comenzotocamos jugamos comenzamostocaron jugaron comenzaron **spelling change in 1st person only
  7. 7. SPOCK hacer ir/ser dar/ver hice fui i hiciste fuiste iste hizo fue io hicimos fuimos imon hicieron fueron ieron
  8. 8. Cucaracha andar anduv- estar estuv- poder pud- -é poner pus- -istequerer quis- -o saber sub- tener tuv- -imos venir vin- -isties -ieron decir dij- i traer traj-conduar conduj- Drop theproducir produj-traduar traduj-
  9. 9. snake/snakeySNAKEDormir STEM CHANGERSDormí Y CHANGERSDormimos LeerDormiste LeíDurmió LeimosDumieron Leiste Leyó Leyeron SNAKEY
  10. 10. Modal verbs Conjugate and pair the modal verb with an infinitive to get a new meaning.Vocab Meaning ir+a+infinitive (going to do something)Deber Should, ought to, mustDesear To desire poder+infinitive (are able to do something)Necesitar To need querer+infinitive (want to do something)Poder Can, could, might, be able toquerer Want, would like to deber+infinitive (should do something)Saber Usually, used to tener que+infinitive (to have to do something)soler Know, know how to soler+infinitive (to be accustomed to) necesitar+infinitive (to need something)
  11. 11. Los Adverbios• Most Spanish adverbs are formed by adding -mente to ‣When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the second one uses the -mente ending. the feminine singular form Note that the first adverb is the same as the of the adjective. This ending feminine singular form of the adjective. corresponds to -ly in English. Adj. Fem. form Adv. claro clara claramente constante constante constantemente difícil difícil difícilmente
  12. 12. Progressive Tense ....present ....present the present progressive is hablar: hablando only used to describe an (hablar - ar + action that is in the process ando)trabajar: of taking place. It is not trabajando used for future actions (trabajar - ar +• To form the present ando)estudiar: progressive in Spanish, estudiando combine a form of "estar" (estudiar - ar + ando) with the present participle. comer: comiendo (comer - er + iendo)hacer: haciendo (hacer - er + iendo)vivir: viviendo (vivir - ir + iendo)escribir: escribiendo (escribir - ir + iendo)
  13. 13. Participles ....past ....past To form the past participle, simply drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and add -ado (for -ar verbs) or -ido (for -er, -ir verbs).They were studying. Ellos estaban estudiando ahora.We were selling a novel Estábamos vendiendo una novela.He was eating a lot. Él estaba comiendo mucho.She was leaving in two days. Estaba partiendo en dos días.
  14. 14. Futuro• The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen.• But, the future tense is not infinitive + ending used to express a willingness to do something.• Regular verbs in the future tense are conjugated by adding the following endings to the infinitive form of the verb: -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án.
  15. 15. Future Irregulars • caber • tenerquerervalersabervenir • poner • decir • haber • salir • hacer • poder
  16. 16. Superlatives• Use when you want to say something os the most or least of a 1)Best 2)worst certain quality. 3)oldest• When using a 4)youngest superlative in the noun form, place it 1) El/La mejor after the article. 2) El/La peor 3) El/La mayor• Use the neutral ‘lo’ 4) El/La menor when referring to an idea or concept.
  17. 17. Formal Commands• Change to ‘yo’ Affirmative AND• Change opposite vowel Negative• ar -> e• er/ir -> a T V D I S H E S
  18. 18. Prepositionsehindencima de - on top of, aboveenfrente de - oppositefrente a - opposite, towardsfuera de • al lado de - beside • alrededor de - around, about • antes de - before • cerca de - near, close to • debajo de - under, underneath • delante de - in front of • dentro de - in, inside, into, within
  19. 19. Conditionals• Frequently, the conditional is ía used to express probability, possibility, wonder or ías conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, ía must have or probably. íamos• To conjugate regular -ar, -er and -ir verbs in the íais conditional, simply add one of the following to the infintive: ían
  20. 20. DemonstrativesDemonstrative adjectives are placed beforethe noun and agree in number and genderwith the noun. This That That over there m este ese aquel f esta esa aquella These Those Those over there m estos esos aquellos f estas esas aquellas Aquí Allí Allá
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