Grammar Book


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Grammar Book

  1. 1. Grammar Book Marcela Ray
  2. 2. Table of ContentsPart One1. Present Tense2. Stem Changers3. Irregular “yo” verbs4. Saber vs. Conocer5. Reflexives6. „Se‟ Impersonal7. Present tense with dipthongs8. Verbs Similar to Gustar9. Irregular Verbs ending in –uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir10. Hacer Expressions11. Imperfect Part Two12. Preterite 15. Preterite vs. Imperfect13. Comparitives/Superlatives 16. Future vs. Conditional14. Future tense 17. Por 18. Para 19. Por vs. Para 20. Commands 21. Present Perfect 22. Double Object Pronouns 23. Adverbs 24. Subjunctive 25. Progressive with ir, andar, and seguir
  3. 3. For present tense Yo Nosotrosverbs, youreplace the Tú Vosotrosar/er/ir endingwith the related Él/Ella/ Ellos/Ellas/conjugation. Usted Ustedes -ar -er -ir -o -amos -o -emos -o -imos -as -áis -es -éis -es -ís -a -an -e -en -e -en1. Present Tense
  4. 4. Ir Estar Ser Dar• Voy • Estoy • Soy • Doy• Vas • Estás • Eres • Das• Va • Está • Es • Da• Vamos • Estamos • Somos • Damos• Van • Están • Son • Dan(1.) Present Tense Irregular Verbs
  5. 5. e → ie (Perder)e→i (Pedir)o → ue (Dormir)u → ue (Jugar)Example: Cerrar (e-ie): cierro cerramos cierras cerráis cierra cierran There is no stem change for nosotros or vosotros. These are also called boot verbs.2. Stem Changers
  6. 6. -car: -co → -qué-gar: -go → -gué-zar: -zo → -céExample: Empacar: empaqué empacamos empacaste empacó empacaron It only changes in the first person singular tense.3. Irregulars (-car,-gar,-zar)
  7. 7. Saber and Conocer both mean “to know,” but they are not interchangable. Saber: to express knowledge or ignorance of information, skills, or facts. ex: Él sabe matemáticas. Conocer: to say that one is or is not acquainted with a person, place, or an object. ex: Yo no conozco a Juan.4. Saber vs. Conocer
  8. 8.  Reflexive verbs show action being done to oneself. They use the pronouns: me nos te os se se-The pronouns can go in front of the conjugated verb (Se baña) or hook on to the end of the infinitive form of the verb (bañarse).Reflexive verbs include: lavarse, llamarse, and vestirse5. Reflexives
  9. 9.  In english, people frequently say things like, “You shouldn‟t smoke” or “One shouldn‟t text and drive,” but “you” and “one” aren‟t really referring to anyone specific. These are called impersonal expressions. In Spanish, you add the pronoun „se‟ in front of the verb you are using. Example: How does one say “ice cream” in Italian? =¿Cómo se dice “helado” en italiano?6. ‘Se’ Impersonal
  10. 10.  Some verbs need an accent to break up the dipthong in order to place stress on the proper syllable. A dipthing is a weak vowel („i/y‟ or „u‟) with a strong vowel („a‟, „e‟, „o‟), or two weak vowels coming together to form one syllable. Example: Esquiar (to ski): esquío esquíamos esquías esquía esquían7. Present Tense with dipthongs
  11. 11. Gustar and verbs similar to gustar do not conjugate like normal verbs. Gustar only conjugates to “gusta” or “gustan.” You use “gusta” if the object that you like is singular, and you use “gustan” if the object you like is plural.Ex: Me gusta la clasa. Te gustan las comidas.Verbs similar to gustar include: Aburrir (to bore), fascinar (to facinate), bastar (to be sufficient), importar (to be important to), interesar (to interest), molestar (to bother), etc.8. Verbs like Gustar
  12. 12. Coger Exigir • Cojo • Exijo • Coges • Exiges • Coge • Exige • Cogemos • Exigimos • Cogen • Exigen Conocer Decir • Conozco • Digo • Conoces • Dices • Conoce • Dice • Conocemos • Dicimos9. Verbs like • Conocen • Dicen-ger/-gir, Atribuir Conseguir • Atribuyo • Consigo-cer/-cir, • Atribuyes • Atribuye • Consigues • Consigue-uir/-guir • Atribuimos • Atribuyen • Consigimos • Consiguen
  13. 13. The verb "hacer" can be used to indicate the length of time an action has been taking place. Use the formula: Hace + time + que + present tense (Hacer + the amount of time needed for the action to be completed + que + the present tense form of the verb being used.)10. Hace + time + que + present tense
  14. 14.  Imperfect verbs describe an ongoing or repeated action taking place in the past. (“I used to…”)  Examples: Los pajaros cantaban. → The birds were singing. Mi mamá tenía una cara bonita. → My mom had a pretty face.-ar: -aba -ábamos -er/-ir: -ía - íamos -abas -ías -aba -aban -ía -ían11. Imperfect
  15. 15. • iba • ibas Trigger Words: • iba •Todos los dias Ir: • íbamos • iban •Siempre •A menudo •Con frecuencia •De vez en cuando • era •Habitualmente • eras • era •NormalmenteSer: • éramos • eran •A veces •Todas las noches •Cada dia •Por/en la tarde • veía •Por/en la noche • veías •Por lo general • veía •Por lo regularVer: • veíamos • veían •Frecuentemente •Etc.(11.) Irregular Imperfects and Trigger Words
  16. 16.  The preterite is a past tense perfected action or a snapshot of time, and it has a beginning and/or an ending. Conjugations: -ar -er/-ir -é -amos -í -imos -aste -iste -ó -aron -ió -ieronTrigger Words:Anteayer, el dia anterior, ayer, el jueves pasado, la semana pasada, el fin de semana pasado, el mes pasado, el otra dia, una vez, esta tarde, etc.12. Preterite
  17. 17. Ir/Ser Dar/Ver Hacer fui d/vi hice fuiste d/viste hiciste Fue d/vio hizo fuimos d/vimos hicimos fueron d/vieron hicieron(12.) Spock Verbs
  18. 18. Andar: anduv- Estar: estuv- Poder: pud- Poner: pus- -e Querer: quis- -iste Saber: sup- -o Tener: tuv- -imos Venir: vin- -isteis Conducir: conduj- -ieronIf there is a „j‟- Producir: produj-drop the „i‟ on Traducir: traduj-„ieron‟ Decir (e-i): dij- Traer: traj-(12.) Cucaracha Verbs
  19. 19.  Snake and Snakey verbs are verbs that change in the third person only. Example of snake verbs: Pedir: pedí pedimos pediste pidieron pidieron Example of snakey verbs: Leer: leí leímos leíste leyó leyeron Snakey verbs change the „i‟ to „y‟ in the third person.(12.) Snake and Snakey Verbs
  20. 20. Superlatives describe what is the most or least of something.Subject + Noun + Mas/Menos + Adjective/Adverb + de + Ex: Esta es la playa más bonita de todas. This beach is the prettiest of all.Comparatives compare one thing to another. (better, older, etc.) >Mas/menos + adj/adv/noun + que >tan (or tanto) + adj/adv (or noun) + como Ex: Mi equipo de fútbol favorito es mejor que el tuyo. My favorite soccer team is better than yours.13. Superlatives and Comparatives
  21. 21. 1) Ir + a + infinitive is the future tense for the immediate future. (“Going to”)2) The more formal way to use the future tense is by conjugating the verb (“I will”). Verbs in the future tense all use the same endings, no matter if they are –ar, -er, or –ir. You do not take the –ar, -er, or –ir off the verb when you are conjugating it. (Nadaré) Endings: -é -ás -á -emos -án14. Future Tense
  22. 22.  Decir: dir- Trigger Words: Haber: habr- •La próxima semana Hacer: har- •En ocho años Poder: podr- •Luego -é •Mañana Poner: pondr- -ás •Planifico Querer: querr- -á •Espero Saber: sabr- -emos •Etc. Salir: saldr- -án Tener: tendr- Valer: valdr- Venir: vendr-(14.) Irregular Future and Triggers
  23. 23. Used for past actions that Used when the past actionare seen as completed. did not have a definite• -ar endings: -é, -aste, -ó, beginning or end. -amos, -aron • -ar endings: -aba, -abas,• -er/-ir endings: -í, -iste, -aba, -ábamos, -aban -ió, -imos, -ieron • -er/-ir endings: -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -ían 15. Preterite vs. Imperfect
  24. 24. Used to tell Used to express what "will" probability or happen, or possibility, and what "shall" is usually happen. translated as • (All verbs): would, could, Infinitive must have or form + -é, probably. -ás, -á, • (All verbs): -emos, -án Infinitive form + -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -ían16. Future vs. Conditional
  25. 25. Indicates: Motion/location- around, through, along, by Duration of an action- for, during, in Reason/motive for action- because of, on account of Object of search- for, in search of By which something is done- by, by way of, by means of Exchange or substitution- in exchange for Unit of measure- per, by17. Por
  26. 26. Indicates: Destination- toward, in direction of Deadline or specific time in the future- by, for Purpose or goal- in order to, for, used for Recipient of something- for Comparison with others or opinion- for, considering In the employ of- for18. Para
  27. 27. Para: Por: • Destination- • Through- Portal Paraguay • Location- Portugal • Purpose- Parasites • Time- Porever live in your body to • Cause of- Porpose stay alive • Exchange- • To make an Import/Export opionion- Paradon me, but… • Means of doing something inplace • Compare/Contrast of someone else- - Compara I‟m por, pay for me • Deadline- Paramedic19. Por vs. Para
  28. 28. • Positive: Drop the „s‟ of the second tú form. Tú • Irregulars: di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ten, ven • Negative: Put it in the „yo‟ form and change the ending to the opposite vowel, add an „s‟ • Irregulars: TVDISHES Usted • Put it in the „yo‟ form and change the ending to the opposite vowel. • Irregulars: TVDISHES Nosotros • Put it in the „nosotros‟ form, add the opposite ending • Irregulars: TVDISHES20. Commands
  29. 29.  Formed by combining the verb “has” or “have” with the past participle: I have studied. In Spanish, it is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb “haber” with the past participle. He -ar verb: drop infinitive Has ending and add –ado Ha + Hemos -er/-ir verb: drop infinitive Han ending and add -ido21. Present Perfect
  30. 30.  The direct object pronouns are: me, te, lo/la, nos, los/las. The indirect object pronouns are: me, te, le, nos, les. -Positive: Giver her the ball. Dé la pelota a ella. (Tú affirmative command of dar)/ DOP: la/ IOP: le Délela. ( Désela. (Give it to her.) -Negative: No se la des. If the IOP is le or les and the DOP is lo, la, los, or las, the le or les changes to se.22. Double Object Pronouns
  31. 31.  Adverbs are formed by adding –mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. This ending corresponds to –ly in English. -Ex: Claro – Claramente When an adjective has a written accent, the adverb retains it. Some adverbs do not follow the –mente pattern. Common ones include: bastante (quite), demasiado (too), mal (badly), mucho (a lot), muy (very), nunca (never), peor (worse), poco (little), and siempre (always).23. Adverbs
  32. 32.  The subjunctive is not a tense; rather, it is a mood. Tense refers to when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood reflects how the speaker feels about the action. Used to express WEDDING: Wish, want Emotion Doubt Denial Impersonal expression Negation, non-existing God, guess It is formed the same way as usted commands- „yo‟ form, opposite vowel.24. Subjunctive
  33. 33.  Ir + present participle= slowly but surely ___-ing. Andar + present participle= is going around ___-ing. Seguir +present participle= is still ___-ing. Present Participles -ar: -ando -er: -iendo -ir: -yendo25. Progressive with ir, andar, and seguir