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Agenda Due: Essay #3 Common Writing Errors: Misuse of who, which, or that Lecture Essay #4 (in class): Arguing a position Discussion: "Children" and "Sticks and Stones" Basic Features Outlining Counterarguments FREECASH In-class writing: Brainstorming
Misuse of who, which, or that:That and Which The late, great writer, David Foster Wallace, had the following to sayabout distinguishing between that and which: “There is widespread ignorance about how to use “that” as a relativepronoun, and two “that” errors are so severe that teachers, editors,and other high-end readers will make unkind judgments about you ifyou commit them. The first is to use “which” when you need “that.”Writers who do this usually think the two relative pronouns areinterchangeable, but that “which” makes you look smarter. They aren’t,and it doesn’t. If there needs to be a comma before the relativepronoun, you need “which”; otherwise, you need “that.”Examples: We have a massive SUV that we purchased on credit last
Use that before a restrictive clause and which before everything else.Restrictive Clause—ThatA restrictive clause is just part of a sentence that you can’t get rid of because itspecifically restricts some other part of the sentence. Here is an example: Gems that sparkle often elicit forgiveness.The words that sparkle restrict the kind of gems youre talking about. Without them,the meaning of the sentence would change. Without them, youd be saying that allgems elicit forgiveness, not just the gems that sparkle. (And note that you dont needcommas around the words that sparkle.Nonrestrictive Clause--WhichA nonrestrictive clause is something that can be left off without changing themeaning of the sentence. You can think of a nonrestrictive clause as simplyadditional information. Here is an example: Diamonds, which are expensive, often elicit forgiveness.
The Easy Way to Remember the Difference BetweenThat and WhichI Needed ThatIf you need the clause to maintain a sentence’smeaning, then use that. A quick trick for rememberingthis grammar rule is the phrase “I needed that.”Which?Because which is also an interrogative pronoun used tomark questions, it is questionable. You can take it orleave it. It’s not necessary. Think of the wordwhich with a question mark (which?) to remindyourself that if the clause’s presence is questionableand can be removed, then you should use the wordwhich to introduce the clause.
That and WhoThere’s a basic rule: who is a relative pronoun forpeople; that is a relative pronouns for everything else.It so happens that you can occupy a bright child for mostof a very quiet morning by challenging her to use thatfive times in a row in a single coherent sentence.He said that that that that that writer used really shouldhave been a who.
1. People ________ live in glass houses shouldnt throw stones.2. Walden Pond, ______ was written in the mid-1800s, remains a popular book among romantic and individualistic Americans.3. She prefers to watch movies ______ make her cry.4. He bought all the books ________ are required for the course.5. In the crowd were several recruits _______ are regarded as excellent prospects for next years team.6. The police were able to find no evidence against her, _____ surprised no one who knows her well.7. Her children, ______ all graduated from college, came home for her eightieth birthday.8. Predictably, the students _____ did best were not the ones who stayed up all night studying.9. She wanted to buy a scarf _______ would complement her blue eyes.10.The answers, ________ you can find in the back of the book, are sometimes incorrect.
Arguing a PositionThe next essay assignment: in-class on Tuesday, March 13th.You may bring a lap-top, an outline, and your book so you canrefer to the essays on torture.
Lecture Essay #4 (in class): Arguinga Position Turn to the chapter beginning on page 237 Volunteer to read aloud? Get into groups of two or three Turn to the “Basic Features” section Identify the basic features of one of the essays we read for class: “Sticks and Stones” or “Children Need to Play.” Be prepared to present your answers You have 15 minutes.
Discussion: "Children" and "Sticks and Stones" Basic Features A Focused Presentation of the Issue The introduction A Clear Position The thesis Plausible Reasons and Convincing Support Multiple reasons with support Examples, statistics, authorities, or anecdotes Anticipating Opposing Positions and Objections Accommodate or refute opposing positions or objections.
FREECASH F= Freedom, Fairness, Legality, Human Rights, Social Justice R = Religion, Morality, Ethics E = Economics, Monetary Issues, Finances, Expenses E = Environment (types of environments = natural, rural, urban, workplace, home, school, etc.) C = Convenience, Comfort A = Appearance, Aesthetics S = Safety, Security H = Health, Well Being (types of health = individual, societal, mental, physical, emotional, or spiritual.)
Practice: School Uniforms Yes, students should No, students should not wear uniforms. wear uniforms.F FR RE EE EC CA AS SH H
Assignment: Is torture ever morally justified? Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading, studies, experience, or observations.
Brainstorming with FREECASHYES: TORTURE IS SOMETIMES NO: TORTURE IS NEVERMORALLY JUSTIFD MORALLY JUSTIFIEDF FR RE EE EC CA AS SH H
Arguments and Counterarguments Identify your stronger arguments to determine which side you will argue—yes, it is morally justifiable or no, it is never morally justifiable. Mark the three or four best arguments you have to support your thesis. Mark one or two of the strongest arguments for THE OTHER SIDE. You will have to accommodate or refute these arguments in your counterargument paragraph.
Make an outline Intro: An explanation of both sides of the argument Thesis Body 1 Topic sentence: assertion Body 2 Topic sentence: assertion Body 3 Topic sentence: assertion Counterargument Some people believe Conclusion
HOMEWORK Read Debate: Torture 265-271 Find an example, an anecdote, statistics, and facts from one of these essays that support your position. Find a way to respond to the objections to your position Add this information to your outline Post your outline