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Talking about Writing an Argument Presentation

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Deliver at ASHA Denver 2015 by Linda Lafontaine and Maryellen Rooney Moreau.

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Talking about Writing an Argument Presentation

  1. 1. Presenters: Linda Lafontaine, M.A. CAGS, CCC-SLP Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed., CCC-SLP Talking About Writing an Argument: Oral Language Strategies ASHA 2015 Denver November 12, 2015
  2. 2. Visit http://mindwingconcepts.com/pages/presentations For the full handout version of this presentation. 2
  3. 3. Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed. CCC-SLP President & Founder, MindWing Concepts, Inc., Springfield, MA •Financial: Maryellen has ownership interest in MindWing Concepts, holds intellectual property rights and patents. Maryellen is employed as president of MindWing Concepts. In that capacity, she designed Story Grammar Marker® and Braidy the StoryBraid® along with many other books and materials. She runs this business as well as consults, trains and presents on MindWing Concepts’methodology and for this, she receives a salary. MindWing Concepts, Inc. receives speaker fees, consulting fees and honoraria as well as reimbursement for travel costs. •Nonfinancial: No relevant nonfinancial relationships exist. Linda M. Lafontaine, M.A. CCC-SLP Speech Pathologist and Principal at The Curtis Blake Day School of Children’s Study Home, Springfield, MA – Financial: Consultant for Mindwing Concepts, Inc., Springfield, MA – Non-Financial: Linda has been a friend and colleague of Maryellen Moreau, owner of MindWing Concepts, Inc. for 20 years. Disclosures
  4. 4. What is the Story Grammar Marker®? A hands on, multisensory tool that has colorful, meaningful icons that represent the organizational structure of a story. The tool itself is a complete episode, the basic unit of a plot. Character Setting Kick-off Feeling Plan Planned Attempts (Actions) Direct Consequence Resolution
  5. 5. A quick review of Story Grammar Marker® & ThemeMaker® methodologies and the Common Core State Standards.
  6. 6. CCSS are Broken Down into categories… • Speaking and Listening • Reading Literature • Reading Foundational Skills • Reading Information Text • Writing • Language www.corestandards.org/about-the-standards …and these categories are interrelated.
  7. 7. Speaking and Listening Standards K-6 Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas #4 1 Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly. K Describe familiar people, places, things and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail. 2 Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences. 3 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. 4 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandabl e pace. 5 Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.Please note: If a child cannot take perspective in the narrative, then he/she will have difficulty using evidence to argue a point or present an opinion. 6 Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  8. 8. 1. Expanded focus on Expository (information) text 2. Teachers of history, science and technology literacies must think about the 10 components of the Writing Strand within their academic discipline. 3. Collaboration among professionals is a necessity. Process not content only is a focus. 4. Grades 6-12 use similar terms in the CCSS but complexity from grade to grade is the difference. 5. All elements of the Writing Standards are contained within the Speaking and Listening Standards. Speaking about and discussing narrative, expository and opinion/argument is necessary. Shifts With The New Common Core State Standards
  9. 9. Grade 3: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons: •Introduce topic or text, state an opinion, create an organizational structure that lists reasons. (List Expository Text Structure) •Provide reasons that support the opinion •Use linking words and phrases such as because/therefore/ since/for example to connect opinion and reasons. •Provide concluding statement or section. Grade 2: Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about supply reasons to support opinion using “linking words” such as (because/also) to connect opinion/reasons. Provide concluding statement/section. Grade 1: Write introduction to topic/book and state an opinion, supply a reason and closure. Kindergarten: Draw/Dictate/ Write topic or book name and state an opinion or preference about it; ex. My favorite book is____________. Text Types and Purposes Standards: ELA CCSS for Writing
  10. 10. Grade 6: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence •Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly •Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. •Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claims and reasons •Establish and maintain a formal style •Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented. Grade 5: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. •Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. (Tenents of Argument) •Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details •Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases and clauses such as consequently/specifically •Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. Grade 4: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information •Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose. (Multiple Expository Text Structures) •Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. •Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases such as for instance/in order to/ in addition. •Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. Big changes!Big changes!
  11. 11. What is argument? ar·gu·ment (noun) är-gy -m ntˈ ə ə •a statement or series of statements for or against something •a discussion in which people express different opinions about something •an angry disagreement
  12. 12. The purpose of argument: •To change the readers’ point of view through logic •To bring about some action on the part of the reader •To convince the reader to accept the explanation or evaluation of a concept, issue or problem
  13. 13. “They’re so much cooler that way” is Calvin’s opinion. As a six-year-old, his version of a “debate” or “argument” is really an opinion.
  14. 14. No one would analyze Calvin and Hobbes like a Speech Language Pathologist would…;) http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/dinosaurs-t-rex https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scavenger http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/t-rex-predator-or- scavenger.htm
  15. 15. Compare & Contrast a Scavenger & vs. a Predator. Describe a Tyrannosauru s Rex. List What were the eating habits of T-Rex? List What were the physical attributes of a T-Rex? Sequence What was the T-Rex’s process for finding food? Cause/Effect How did the T- Rex’s physical attributes impact their eating habits? The Goal. Problem/Solution How did a T-Rex get food in the most efficient way?
  16. 16. • In life, all humans have likes and dislikes. (See our SGM® Character Map). These give rise to opinions. Think about Vanilla/Chocolate, McDonald’s/Burger King, Buying/Renting, or Democrat/Republican! Everybody has an opinion about something. • Opinions are thoughts we have about things, people’s behavior, ideas or situations that we like or dislike and agree or disagree within our lives. Let’s start from the beginning: From the Character Map to Argument - The Process!
  17. 17. • Opinions ( as in The Important Book by Margaret Wise Brown) may be stated. “The important thing about a daisy is that it is white.” Other things about daisies are listed here, as descriptive elements, but the author has chosen one to be the “important thing” (IHO). • Opinions may be backed by listing reasons: I like daisies. Daisies are yellow in the middle. Yellow makes me feel happy. • Opinions, supported by listed reasons, are written using more advanced syntax incorporating cohesive ties: I like daisies because daisies are yellow in the middle and that makes me feel joyful. C O H E S I V E
  18. 18. Perspective Taking with the Critical Thinking Triangle® “We must be able to stand in the shoes of other, see the world through their eyes, empathize with what they are feeling, and attempt to think and react to the world in the same way that they think and react to the world.” -Moskowitz, Lehigh University, Social Cognition 2005 Please note: Children with social cognition and social communication problems have difficulty taking perspective and therefore will have difficulty formulating an argument. One of the uses of the Critical Thinking Triangle® is to help children to visualize different perspectives in literature, history and social situations.
  19. 19. Another person (or people) may have an opinion that is different from your opinion. This is their “point of view” or perspective. Perspective-taking is the ability to see a point of view in addition to one’s own. Look at the photo to the right… •What do you see? •What is the point of view of the couple? •What might another perspective reveal? Opinion and Perspective-Taking/Point of View
  20. 20. Narrative Selection Expository Selection Children’s Literature for Perspective-Taking
  21. 21. Building Background Knowledge
  22. 22. Common Core State Standards Writing Standard 6.1 Write relevant arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. d. Establish and maintain a formal style. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that
  23. 23. Scaling/Lexical Array from Persuade to Argue  Practice with a familiar sequence from least to greatest  Construct an array from persuade to argue  Chosen words-persuade, argue, convince, think about, influence, discuss and debate  Discuss differences between the words and when you would use them  Have students physically form the array from least to greatest given words on large index cards. Meander Stroll Walk Run
  24. 24. Gradual Release of Responsibility Model (GRRM)  Demonstration “I do”  Teacher model of writing paragraph using graphic organizer  Revise in front of students  Shared Demonstration “We do”  Give students many opportunities to first express their ideas orally without the fear of writing  Focus on academic vocabulary on argument map (specifically, for example, as a result, more important)  Complete map as a group and write piece together
  25. 25. GRRM continued  Guided Practice “Y’all do”  Review anchor chart and graphic organizer completed in class  Guided writing/partner writing  Independent Practice “You do”  Sustained independent writing in school  Conferences with students Routman, R. (2005) Writing e sse ntials: raising e xpe ctatio ns and re sults while sim plifying te aching . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  26. 26. Under Quabbin Video
  27. 27. LITERACY NIGHT CURTIS BLAKE DAY SCHOOL Linda M. Lafontaine, M.A., CCC-SLP
  28. 28. Quabbin Resevoir Video
  29. 29. Gradual Release of Responsibility Model (GRRM)  Demonstration “I do”  Teacher model of writing paragraph using graphic organizer  Revise in front of students  Shared Demonstration “We do”  Give students many opportunities to first express their ideas orally without the fear of writing  Focus on academic vocabulary on argument map (specifically, for example, as a result, more important)  Complete map as a group and write piece together
  30. 30. GRRM continued  Guided Practice “Y’all do”  Review anchor chart and graphic organizer completed in class  Guided writing/partner writing  Independent Practice “You do”  Sustained independent writing in school  Conferences with students Routman, R. (2005) Writing e sse ntials: raising e xpe ctatio ns and re sults while sim plifying te aching . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  31. 31. In the late 1880’s it was clear that the residents of Boston would shortly not have enough water for their homes and businesses. The city was growing rapidly and their water supply from their current reservoirs was not enough. The legislature believed it would be best to flood the Swift River Valley to make a reservoir to provide water for the people of Boston. However, 2400 people lived in the valley who did not believe they should have to move. The Legislature had to convince them to sell their property for the “greater good” of the people of Boston. They explained to the residents that Boston did not have enough water. They argued that the 750,000 people of Boston contributed greatly to the economy. While they agreed that 2400 people lived in the valley would be affected, that was a small number of people compared to the Boston population. In addition, they would be paid for their homes and property. So while 2400 people would have to move, the legislature voted to flood the valley. By the year 1938, the towns had been flooded and the Quabbin Reservoir was created. The people of Boston were happy at the expense of the residents of the Swift River Valley.
  32. 32. Argument Topic Suggestions  Is homework helpful or harmful?  Should students be allowed to chew gum at school?  Should hats be allowed to be worn at school?  Should children read more or less for homework?  Is watching television better than reading books?  Should children be required to do chores?  Should children be paid for doing chores?
  33. 33. Argument Topic Suggestions  Video games are beneficial for children.  Fast food provides good nutrition.  The school day should be shortened or lengthened.  It is important for children to have gym class.  Every child should have a cell phone.  Should children be allowed to wear whatever they want outside of school?  TVs are beneficial in children’s bedrooms.
  34. 34. Argument Topic Suggestions  Bicycle helmets are not necessary when riding a bike.  Children should choose their own bedtime.  Cats make better pets than dogs.  Children as young as ten should be allowed to stay home by themselves.  Sports are more important than homework.
  35. 35. Common Core State Standards  Speaking and Listening Standard 6.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.  Speaking and Listening Standard 6.3 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
  36. 36. Common Core State Standards  Language Standard 6.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.  Language Standard 6.6 Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
  37. 37. Common Core State Standards Writing Standard 6.1 Write relevant arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. d. Establish and maintain a formal style. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that
  38. 38. Common Core State Standards  Writing Standard 6.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
  39. 39. Additional Texts on Theme of Leaving  Fiday, B. and D. (1990). Tim e to g o . San Diego: Gulliver Books, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers.  Provensen, A. and M. (1987). Shake r lane . New York: Viking Kestrel
  40. 40. References  Hillocks, Jr., G. (2011). Te aching arg um e nt writing . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.  Rivard, L. (2014). Me lvin farg o write s to arg ue and pe rsuade . Northville, MI: Ferne Press.  Routman, R. (2005) Writing e sse ntials: raising e xpe ctatio ns and re sults while sim plifying te aching . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.  Sedita, J. (2011) The key vocabulary Routine. Rowley, MA: Keys to Literacy.  Yolen, J. (1992) Le tting swift rive r g o . New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  41. 41. Questions? Comments?
  42. 42. CONTACT US! Linda llafontaine@studyhome.org Maryellen mrmoreau@mindwingconcepts.co m www.mindwingconcepts.com
  43. 43. Connect with Maryellen: • Join our EMAIL list: http://mindwingconcepts.com/contactus.htm • Follow us on Twitter @mindwingconcept • LIKE us on Facebook! https://www.facebook.com/mindwingconcepts • Join our Official SGM® Professional Learning Community on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StoryGrammarMarker/ • Follow us on Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/sheils200/official-story- grammar-marker/ • Connect with Maryellen Rooney Moreau on LinkedIn

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