HIGHER TIER : What the Examiners are looking for:- (Grade A)• Full control of the material: effective use of linguistic devices.• Confident understanding of what you have set yourself to do and consistent relevance to it. Clear sense of audience where there is one.• Use imaginative but appropriate vocabulary• Develop a clear structure to the work: it must have an opening, central development and a clear conclusion.• Use of paragraphs and coherent links between them.• Use of a range of sentence structures to create effects.• Secure and generally accurate spelling.• Use ambitious and mainly secure punctuation.
FOUNDATION: What the Examiners are looking for:- Grade C.• General control of the material: but some ambition, too.• A relevant understanding of what you have set yourself to do. Sense of the audience, where there is one.• Some variety of vocabulary.• A clear beginning, middle and end.• Effectively linked paragraphs.• Generally accurate sentence structures.• Mainly accurate spelling: possibly some errors in ambitious vocabulary.• Simple punctuation mostly accurate and secure.
Persuasive/Argumentative Writing – this could be a speech or a letter or article.• You need to organise your points into paragraphs.• You need to ensure a clear line of development, using connectives to move the writing on• You will need to demonstrate a variety of sentence structures• You need to use techniques to get the audience or reader to agree with your viewpoint. Use rhetorical questions, anecdotal evidence, statistics, personal experience etc as evidence.
Structure:*opening statement giving opinion – make it interesting*series of paragraphs – argument then counter argument*summary and conclusion – restating opinion Five quick steps to exam success! 1. PAF 2. Five points 3. Order 4. A FOREST 5. Proofread
PAF?• Write an article to advise adults to give up smoking.• Write a speech to deliver at a primary school to persuade them to pick up litter.• Write a newspaper report for a tabloid paper arguing against rising petrol prices.
Your Question For Today:All pupils should wear school uniform.Write a letter to the Headteacher of your school to argue your view.
What are the ingredients of a good persuasive argument?• A number of views and opinions, both for and against a subject. (Use of counter argument) AIM FOR 5.• Well structured points progressing in a logical ORDER – use connectives to help you.• LANGUAGE appropriate to the audience (i.e. are you writing to a politician or to a group of teenagers?).• Use of ‘counter argument’ (‘You could state that …. However, this is clearly not the case because ….’).• Evidence (this can be made up to support your views) and examples (PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES)
Planning your work:People who plan get higher marks.You must have worked out a system: a “drill” for planning your work in the examination:• After you have worked out your PAF, you need to plan the points of your argument. These points need to be strong – they need to convince someone to agree with you! Remember that you need to use paragraphs which will develop different aspects of the piece and which are linked together coherently. Always leave time to CHECK your work at the end.
School uniform – a good idea?• Firstly, construct a plan. This can take the form of a bullet pointed list or spiderdiagram – whatever suits you best.• A good way to begin is by jotting down a list of points for and against school uniform. Aim for 5 points.• Regardless of your own views, remember to take the opposing viewpoint into consideration and mention it. This will demonstrate that you have a broad perspective. …
In favour of school uniform …• Everybody looks the same – smart, tidy.• You are easy to identify.• Now try to think of three more points of your own … …
Against school uniform …• School uniform is dull and the idea is outdated.• It doesn’t allow for any expression of individuality.• Now try to think of three more points to add to this list. …
The counter argument• If your ‘for’ argument is ‘Everyone looks the same’, then what might your counter argument be? It doesn’t allow for any individuality or self-expression …
Below are some ‘for’ uniform points. Your job is to create the counter argument for each one• School uniform allows pupils to represent their school and community.• It is useful when on a school outing or trip as it allows students to be easily identified.• School uniform keeps students looking smart.• There is no peer pressure to have the latest fashions.• Uniform saves your other clothes. …
Now, from the work we have done, choose 5 points that you will make for your argument (either for or against school uniform) You can bring in their counter arguments later!• Put them into order:• 1.• 2. These will be the points• 3. of your paragraphs• 4.• 5.
Connectives Bingo So, how can I structure my argument effectively? • Connective words can help you with this. • Look at the following list and select at least five of them to use in your own piece of argumentative writing.However… Moreover... Although Therefore In the first Firstly In conclusion place… Secondly To conclude To begin To sum up with… In addition Furthermore What is more… …
If you are writing to persuade/argue always go through AFOREST – these will add weight to your argumentA ANECDOTES A personal experience & story as proof.F FACTS Know any? Borrow from Section A? Invent!O OPINION Strong words “It is outrageous…”R RHETORICAL QUESTIONS Express powerfully – not too many – remember the question mark.E EXAMPLES & EXPERTS Give examples as support. Invent an expert and quote e.g. Professor Jane Morris of Oxford University says, “It..S STATISTICS Invent! E.g. “In a recent survey conducted by York University, 73%…”T TRIPLES Lists of three –maybe with alliteration? Eg “It is cruel, callous and criminal to…”
So … over to you• Now that you have thought of a number of arguments for and against, and have an idea of how to create a counter argument, you are ready to write your response.• Remember to use those connectives. Good luck! …
Top Tip!If you are writing to argue • To give your writing a or persuade you want real sense of structure, to make your opening line lively and link back to your memorable. The best rhetorical question in way to do this is to ask a your conclusion: rhetorical question in your first sentence: ‘So, I hope this has made‘Would you appreciate you think twice about being forced to wear The middle of forcing a uniform on the same clothes your writing will students.’ everyday?’ be your points and counter arguments Put these strongest points into the most effective order. Think of each point as a ‘signpost’ that will help your reader follow your ideas. Use connectives
Which opening is the best and why? What makes it better? What’s wrong with the other one? Do you think it’s fair to I don’t think schoolmake children wear the uniforms should besame clothes everyday? I imposed because they aredon’t! It’s like forcing a boring and maketoddler to be quiet; that’s everybody look the same.just cruel and unnatural! It’s In addition, they can be expensive and difficult tounfair, unreasonable and maintain. Uniforms don’tunoriginal and we all allow children to beremember the teasing that individuals and might buildwent on in the playground resentment in schools.if your uniform s faded ortatty. Uniforms just aren’t afair expectation.
Write your own amazing opening paragraph1. Make the first sentence interesting, lively and memorable. Start with a rhetorical question linked to the topic. Follow it with a short sentence stating your EXTENSION opinion. Don’t forget punctuation for effect! If you have time: Plan your other 4 paragraphs. Remember to end with a2. Back up your point using strong conclusion. evidence/examples through two or three techniques from AFOREST.3. Restate your point in the last sentence4. Check your spelling, punctuation and sentence structures.