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Sustainable intensification of maize-bean production among smallholder farmers in western Kenya. John Achieng
 

Sustainable intensification of maize-bean production among smallholder farmers in western Kenya. John Achieng

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

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    Sustainable intensification of maize-bean production among smallholder farmers in western Kenya. John Achieng Sustainable intensification of maize-bean production among smallholder farmers in western Kenya. John Achieng Presentation Transcript

    • Sustainable intensification of maize-bean production among smallholder farmers in western Kenya Achieng, J.1, F. Kanampiu2, Y. Chauhan3, D. Rodriquez4 1Kenya Agricultural Research Institute 2CIMMYT, Nairobi, Kenya 3Agri-Sciences Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia 4The University of Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 1
    • Introduction & Background• Maize is a major staple food in Kenya• Often grown in association with beans• About 80% of maize produced by smallholders• Current yield: ‹1.0 t ha-1 against potential of ≥ 3.5 t 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 2
    • Justification• Conv. tillage practices have degraded the soils• Droughts and long dry-spells are regular• Use of inorganic fertilizers is not common• Demand for maize increases by 4% annually; Food security is threatened• Need to embrace Conservation Agriculture to restore lost soil fertility 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 3
    • ObjectivesLong-term: • To test resilient smallholder maize-bean farming technologies based on CA principlesShort-term: • To investigate the effects of minimal tillage and residue retention on water use efficiency, SOM and maize-bean yield • To test the capacity of APSIM to model performance of maize-beans system under CA practices 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 4
    • Expected Output• About 30% increase in yield due to adoption of CA practices within a period of about 10 years• About 30% decrease in production risks due to adoption of CA practices within a period of about 10 years 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 5
    • Materials & Methods• Sites: 5 – two in Siaya: low potential zone – two in Bungoma: medium potential zone – One on-station: medium potential zone• Participating farmers: 130; members of farmers’ groups• Type of research: Participatory and farmer-managed 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 6
    • Materials & Methods ContTreatments 1. Conventional practice 2. CA + non-inoculated beans 3. CA + inoculated beans 4. CA + desmodiumVarieties: Depended on site and seasonFertilizer: CA treatments = 80 kg N and 60 kg P/ha Conventional = 40 kg N and 30 kg P/haPlot Size: 20m X 17m 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 7
    • Materials & Methods Cont A farmer showing group members how to record Weather data weather data and rainfall trend that month• Daily rainfall• Daily Min & Max temp• Daily Min & Max temp for 30 yrs• Daily Radiation for 15 yrs 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 8
    • Materials & Methods Cont.• Soil Data Soil sampled from 4 layers (up to 90cm), 3 times a season for: • Gravimetric water determination • Bulk Density determination • Chemical analysis 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 9
    • Materials & Methods Cont.Scientist and technicians examining Tumaini Farmers’ Field School membersdegraded Western Kenya soils discussing pros and cons of CA 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 10
    • Materials & Methods Cont.• Crop Data – Maize crop sampled 3 times each season for chemical analysis – Maize & bean yield and related parameters 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 11
    • Materials & Methods Cont.Maize and beans grown under Maize and beans grown underconventional practice, western Kenya CA practice, western Kenya 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 12
    • Materials & Methods Cont.Residue retained in a maize Desmodium grown as a cover crop incrop in CA trial, western Kenya maize in CA trial, western Kenya 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 13
    • Technology DisseminationThe District Commissioner being Provincial Administration staff attended the field day. DCs and Chiefs are influential andshown CA plots at Siaya Field Day respected 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 14
    • Result : Water Use EfficiencyTreatment WUE WUE (kg/mm/ha) (kg/mm/ha) 2010 LR Season 2011 LR SeasonConventional 8.5 8.0CA + non-inoculated beans 10.8 11.9CA + inoculated beans 9.5 9.9CA + desmodium 9.8 9.9Conventional practice gave lower WUE compared to CACA practices progressively increased WUE while conventionalpractice progressively reduced the WUE 15 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Result: Crop Yield (2010 Season) Treatment Beans Maize (kg/ha) (kg/ha)Conventional 355c 4,075CA + non-inoculated beans 626b 4,650CA + inoculated beans 927a 4,416CA + desmodium 707ab 4,483 Mean 654 4,406 LSD (5%) 231 nsRhizobial inoculation increased bean yieldCA had no effect on maize yield 16 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Result 2011 Season: Crop Yield Treatment Beans Maize (kg/ha) (kg/ha)Conventional 640a 2,810bCA + non-inoculated beans 520ab 5,150aCA + inoculated beans 390ab 4,330aCA + desmodium 320bc 4,310a Mean 468 4,150 LSD (5%) 240 989Conventional practice gave highest bean yieldCA practices gave higher maize yield compared to conventional practice 17 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Suitability of APSIM Predicted yield (kg/ha) 6000 1:1 line R2=0.9 4500 3000 Beans 1500 Maize 0 0 1500 3000 4500 6000 Observed yield (kg/ha)The slope of the regression between observed and predictedyield is R2 = 0.9, indicating a high degree of accuracy 18 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • ConclusionsCombination of minimal tillage and residueretention: – maximized soil water use and hence can be an effective tool in mitigating effects of drought and prolonged dry spells – More than doubled maize yield; food security among smallholders can be achieved in a short- run APSIM can model performance of maize-beans system under CA practices Farmers beginning to appreciate CA 19 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Challengeso Competition for crop residueso Lack of appropriate implements to be used under very smallholder farmso Ants that feed on residue 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 20
    • Acknowledgmentso KARI: For facilitating the researcho CIMMYT: For technical backstoppingo ACIAR: For financial supporto Western Kenya farmers: For implementationo WCCA Organizing Committee: For accepting the papero This esteemed audience for accepting to listen to the presentation 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane 21