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WELCOME Wheat Research Centre   Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute Gazipur Dr. Md. Ataur Rahman
Rice straw mulching and nitrogen  requirement   to improve productivity of no-till wheat following rice in Bangladesh M. A. Rahman, NCD Barma, T. P. Tiwari and J. G. Lauren
Why no-tillage? To conserve national resources. Improve productivity, soil physics and many others. But we at Wheat Research Centre, initiated no-till what with different objectives- 1. Reduce the time interval between rice harvest to wheat  sowing thus ensure the proper time of wheat sowing.  2. To utilize the residual soil moisture .
What is our experience? Soil moisture during seeding is the key factor for establishment of no-till wheat. In most cases soil moisture either higher or lower than the requirement.  In light textured soil, rapid dry up of top soil caused Poor stand establishment,  Also Weed infestation was higher with Low nitrogen use efficiency  Low productivity no till wheat.
No-till Wheat following rice No-till Maize following wheat PTPR No-till rice (DSR) following maize Attempts to address the constraints
Farmers remained with their traditional system.  Preferred well till soil for upland crops and   Well puddling for wetland  rice.
Crop residue has the multiple use, as feed and fuel. Also rice straw is used in thatching the rural huts.  Thus the retention of crop residue is rare in Bangladesh. What is about crop residue retention?
Under such a condition, we initiate an alternate approach of duel use of rice straw. For a short period as mulch and after withdrawing as fuel. To examine whether mulching for a short period have the potentials in improving no-till wheat by   - Conserving initial soil moisture. - Controlling weed growth. - Increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Objectives
Experimental Design and treatments   Factorial RCBD Mulch treatments M 0  = No mulching M 1  = Straw mulch @ 4.0 t ha -1  which withdrawn at 20 DAS M 2  = Straw mulch @ 4.0 t ha -1  that was retained on soil Nitrogen levels N 0  = No nitrogen  N 1  = 80 Kg ha -1 N 2  = 120 Kg ha -1   N 3  = 160 Kg ha -1 WRC, Dinajpur, 2007-08 and 2008-09, post-rice harvested paddy field. Location Methodology Applied as 3 equal split during sowing seeds, 20 DAS and 35 DAS.
Soil Moisture in surface soil layers (0-15 cm) was monitored gravimetrically from sowing to 40 DAS at 5 days interval.   Weed sampling and biomass were measured at 20, 35 and 45 DAS.   Growth analysis of wheat roots (RLD and RWD) was carried out at anthesis stage of the crop. N content in straw and grain was analyzed to determine N uptake and ANR (%). ANR%= [(A – B)/C] × 100   Where, A is N uptake by the plant under the treatment of interest (kg/ha), B is N uptake by the plant under N0 treatment (kg/ha), and C is N applied for the treatment of interest (kg/ha) Measurements
Fig. 1: Effect of mulch and N levels on surface soil moisture in time   First year 2nd year 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Days after sowing  Soil moisture (%) N0 N80 N120 N160 2001-02 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Days after sowing Soil moisture (%) N0 N80 N120 N160 2000-01 First year 2nd year ↑ IR ↑ IR ↑ IR ↑ IR
Fig. 2: Effect of mulch and N levels on weed growth   2 nd   Year 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 20 35 45 Days after sowing Dry matter (g m -2 ) N0 N80 N120 N160 2 nd  Year 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 20 35 45 Days after sowing Dry matter (g m -2 ) M0 M1 M2 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 20 35 45 Days after sowing Dry matter (g m -2 ) N0 N80 N120 N160 1 st  Year 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 20 35 45 Days after sowing Dry matter (g m -2 ) M0 M1 M2 1 st  Year 2 nd  Year
Fig. 3: Interaction effect of mulch and N levels on number of spikes/m 2  of no-till wheat  N levels
Table1: Root growth of no-till wheat at anthesis stage under different  mulch and N levels 1.33  ab 0.36  a 1.45  a 52.54  a N 160 1.49  a 0.33  a 1.44  a 46.20  b N 120 1.21  b 0.31  a 1.40  a 38.45  c N 80 1.05  c 0.15  b 0.82  b 19.29  d N 0 N levels 1.50  a 0.38  a 1.69  a 47.5  a M 2 1.44  a 0.35  a 1.61  a 45.4  a M 1 0.76  b 0.23  b 0.69  b 24.6  b M 0 Mulch levels Root length density (cm/cc) Root weight density (mg/cc) Root weight  (g/plant) Shoot weight  (g/plant) Treatment
Fig. 4: Interaction effect of mulch and N levels on N uptake of no-till wheat  N levels
Table 2: Effect of mulch and N levels on grain yield of wheat (Mean of 2 years, in t ha -1 ) Capital letters to compare mulch effect under any N level and small lettering to compare N effect under any mulch level  3.90  A   a 3.81  A   a  2.81  B   a N 160 3.98  A   a 3.72  A   a 2.16  B   b N 120 2.67  A   b 2.58  A  b 1.73  B   c N 80 0.75  A   c 0.72  A   c 0.45  B   d N 0 M 2 M 1 M 0 Treat-ment
Fig. 5: Nitrogen level Vs. grain yield relationship under different much treatments. M 2 Grain Yield (kg/ha) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 80 120 160 N (kg ha -1 ) M 0 0 80 120 160 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 80 120 160 M 1 N (kg ha -1 ) y = 388 + 30.2x - 0.132x 2 R 2  = 0.898 Optimum N Dose = 115 kg ha -1 N (kg ha -1 ) Grain Yield (kg/ha) y = 364 + 27.1x - 0.111x 2 R 2  = 0.916 Optimum N Dose = 122 kg ha -1 y = 17.5x + 216 R 2  = 0.965
Straw mulch conserves initial soil moisture and suppresses weed growth. Mulch ensures plant establishment with higher spikes/m 2 . Improves N-uptake and root proliferation of no-till wheat. Mulching for a short period of 20 DAS is as effective as straw retention, in eliminating the production constraints and favoring the production factors of no-till wheat. When the recommendation of straw retention is prohibited due to multiple need for straw, farmer’s could practice the alternate option of short term mulching.  Conclusion and Remarks
Acknowledgement
Thank you very much BARI Anthurium-1 BARI Gerbera- 1

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Rice straw mulching and nitrogen requirement to improve productivity of no-till wheat following rice in Bangladesh. Ataur Rahman

  • 1. WELCOME Wheat Research Centre Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute Gazipur Dr. Md. Ataur Rahman
  • 2. Rice straw mulching and nitrogen requirement to improve productivity of no-till wheat following rice in Bangladesh M. A. Rahman, NCD Barma, T. P. Tiwari and J. G. Lauren
  • 3. Why no-tillage? To conserve national resources. Improve productivity, soil physics and many others. But we at Wheat Research Centre, initiated no-till what with different objectives- 1. Reduce the time interval between rice harvest to wheat sowing thus ensure the proper time of wheat sowing. 2. To utilize the residual soil moisture .
  • 4. What is our experience? Soil moisture during seeding is the key factor for establishment of no-till wheat. In most cases soil moisture either higher or lower than the requirement. In light textured soil, rapid dry up of top soil caused Poor stand establishment, Also Weed infestation was higher with Low nitrogen use efficiency Low productivity no till wheat.
  • 5. No-till Wheat following rice No-till Maize following wheat PTPR No-till rice (DSR) following maize Attempts to address the constraints
  • 6. Farmers remained with their traditional system. Preferred well till soil for upland crops and Well puddling for wetland rice.
  • 7. Crop residue has the multiple use, as feed and fuel. Also rice straw is used in thatching the rural huts. Thus the retention of crop residue is rare in Bangladesh. What is about crop residue retention?
  • 8. Under such a condition, we initiate an alternate approach of duel use of rice straw. For a short period as mulch and after withdrawing as fuel. To examine whether mulching for a short period have the potentials in improving no-till wheat by - Conserving initial soil moisture. - Controlling weed growth. - Increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Objectives
  • 9. Experimental Design and treatments Factorial RCBD Mulch treatments M 0 = No mulching M 1 = Straw mulch @ 4.0 t ha -1 which withdrawn at 20 DAS M 2 = Straw mulch @ 4.0 t ha -1 that was retained on soil Nitrogen levels N 0 = No nitrogen N 1 = 80 Kg ha -1 N 2 = 120 Kg ha -1 N 3 = 160 Kg ha -1 WRC, Dinajpur, 2007-08 and 2008-09, post-rice harvested paddy field. Location Methodology Applied as 3 equal split during sowing seeds, 20 DAS and 35 DAS.
  • 10. Soil Moisture in surface soil layers (0-15 cm) was monitored gravimetrically from sowing to 40 DAS at 5 days interval. Weed sampling and biomass were measured at 20, 35 and 45 DAS. Growth analysis of wheat roots (RLD and RWD) was carried out at anthesis stage of the crop. N content in straw and grain was analyzed to determine N uptake and ANR (%). ANR%= [(A – B)/C] × 100 Where, A is N uptake by the plant under the treatment of interest (kg/ha), B is N uptake by the plant under N0 treatment (kg/ha), and C is N applied for the treatment of interest (kg/ha) Measurements
  • 11. Fig. 1: Effect of mulch and N levels on surface soil moisture in time First year 2nd year 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Days after sowing Soil moisture (%) N0 N80 N120 N160 2001-02 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Days after sowing Soil moisture (%) N0 N80 N120 N160 2000-01 First year 2nd year ↑ IR ↑ IR ↑ IR ↑ IR
  • 12. Fig. 2: Effect of mulch and N levels on weed growth 2 nd Year 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 20 35 45 Days after sowing Dry matter (g m -2 ) N0 N80 N120 N160 2 nd Year 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 20 35 45 Days after sowing Dry matter (g m -2 ) M0 M1 M2 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 20 35 45 Days after sowing Dry matter (g m -2 ) N0 N80 N120 N160 1 st Year 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 20 35 45 Days after sowing Dry matter (g m -2 ) M0 M1 M2 1 st Year 2 nd Year
  • 13. Fig. 3: Interaction effect of mulch and N levels on number of spikes/m 2 of no-till wheat N levels
  • 14. Table1: Root growth of no-till wheat at anthesis stage under different mulch and N levels 1.33 ab 0.36 a 1.45 a 52.54 a N 160 1.49 a 0.33 a 1.44 a 46.20 b N 120 1.21 b 0.31 a 1.40 a 38.45 c N 80 1.05 c 0.15 b 0.82 b 19.29 d N 0 N levels 1.50 a 0.38 a 1.69 a 47.5 a M 2 1.44 a 0.35 a 1.61 a 45.4 a M 1 0.76 b 0.23 b 0.69 b 24.6 b M 0 Mulch levels Root length density (cm/cc) Root weight density (mg/cc) Root weight (g/plant) Shoot weight (g/plant) Treatment
  • 15. Fig. 4: Interaction effect of mulch and N levels on N uptake of no-till wheat N levels
  • 16. Table 2: Effect of mulch and N levels on grain yield of wheat (Mean of 2 years, in t ha -1 ) Capital letters to compare mulch effect under any N level and small lettering to compare N effect under any mulch level 3.90 A a 3.81 A a 2.81 B a N 160 3.98 A a 3.72 A a 2.16 B b N 120 2.67 A b 2.58 A b 1.73 B c N 80 0.75 A c 0.72 A c 0.45 B d N 0 M 2 M 1 M 0 Treat-ment
  • 17. Fig. 5: Nitrogen level Vs. grain yield relationship under different much treatments. M 2 Grain Yield (kg/ha) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 80 120 160 N (kg ha -1 ) M 0 0 80 120 160 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 80 120 160 M 1 N (kg ha -1 ) y = 388 + 30.2x - 0.132x 2 R 2 = 0.898 Optimum N Dose = 115 kg ha -1 N (kg ha -1 ) Grain Yield (kg/ha) y = 364 + 27.1x - 0.111x 2 R 2 = 0.916 Optimum N Dose = 122 kg ha -1 y = 17.5x + 216 R 2 = 0.965
  • 18. Straw mulch conserves initial soil moisture and suppresses weed growth. Mulch ensures plant establishment with higher spikes/m 2 . Improves N-uptake and root proliferation of no-till wheat. Mulching for a short period of 20 DAS is as effective as straw retention, in eliminating the production constraints and favoring the production factors of no-till wheat. When the recommendation of straw retention is prohibited due to multiple need for straw, farmer’s could practice the alternate option of short term mulching. Conclusion and Remarks
  • 20. Thank you very much BARI Anthurium-1 BARI Gerbera- 1