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Biofortification Provitamin A Maize in Zambia

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Improved nutrition in Zambia – the role of agricultural research

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Biofortification Provitamin A Maize in Zambia

  1. 1. Biofortification Provitamin A Maize in Zambia Fabiana De Moura, Ph.D.HarvestPlus c/o IFPRI2033 K Street, NW • Washington, DC 20006-1002 USATel: 202-862-5600 • Fax: 202-467-4439HarvestPlus@cgiar.org • www.HarvestPlus.org
  2. 2. An Interdisciplinary Program 200+ scientists, 40+ countriesIFPRIWashington, D.C., U.S.A. CIAT Cali, Colombia Consultative Group on Int’l Ag. Research (CGIAR)
  3. 3. Biofortification-breeding food cropsthat are more nutritious Photo: D. Marchand
  4. 4. Targeted: poor people eat staples Photo: IRRI
  5. 5. Sustainable: farmers can save and share Photo: A.M. Ball
  6. 6. Photo: ICRISATCost-effective:central one-time investment
  7. 7. Supplementation Commercial FortificationDietaryDiversity Biofortification
  8. 8. Biofortified Crops for Asia Pearl Millet Iron (Zinc) 2012 India Rice Zinc 2013 Bangladesh, India Wheat Zinc2013 India, Pakistan
  9. 9. Biofortified Crops for Africa Cassava Provitamin A2011 DR Congo, Nigeria Beans Iron DR Congo, Rwanda RELEASED!2012 Sweet Potato Maize Provitamin A Provitamin A Mozambique,2012 Zambia Uganda
  10. 10. Nutrition Challenge Nutrition ChallengeDemonstrate the ability of biofortifiedcrops to have an impact on thenutritional and health status of thetarget population
  11. 11. Target LevelBy how much we need to increase the provitamin A content in the maizeto improve the vitamin A status for their consumers?
  12. 12. Initial Assumptions % of daily micronutrient Approximately 50% requirement to achieve Women Children 4-6 yrs-old Requirement (EAR) (µg/day) 500 275 Intake of Maize (g/day) 400 200 Retention 50% Bioavailability 12:1 Baseline content (µg/g) 0-0.5 Additional content (µg/g) +15INITIAL TARGET LEVEL: 15.0-15.5 µg/g fresh, raw weight 17.0-17.5 µg/g dw
  13. 13. Nutrition Research Maize IntakeDevelopment Estimate the Retention Target Level BioavailabilityEvaluation Efficacy Trial Effectiveness
  14. 14. Nutrition Survey-2009
  15. 15. Vitamin A statusAge/Gender Year Prevalence Notes Information SourceGroupChildren ages 1997 65.7% Serum retinol levels NFNC6-59 months <0.7 umol/LChildren ages 2003 53% Serum retinol levels NFNC6-59 months <0.7 umol/LChildren ages 2009 57% Serum retinol levels HarvestPlus Survey24-59 months <0.7 umol/L Prevalence adjusted Mkushi and for infection using Nyimba districts MRDR test was 48%
  16. 16. Usual Intake of Maize Nyimba (gm) Mkushi (gm) p-value n Mean Median n Mean Median (mean +se) (mean +se)Reference child Season 175 154.8 +5.5 145 208 165+5.9 144 ns 1 (May - June) Season 162 183.4 +7.7 171 177 195+6.8 183 ns 2 (Oct - Dec) Total 337 168.5+4.7 153 385 178.9 +4.5 174Younger sibling Season 53 70.1 +7.2 53 58 67.8 +6.9 46 ns 1 (May - June) Season 51 106.3 +15 78 56 106.1 +7.2 108 ns 2 (Oct - Dec) Total 104 87.8+8.6 64.5 114 86.7 +5.3 75.5Mother/female Season 169 260.4 +9.2 260 205 311.3+10.9 282 0.001caret aker 1 (May - June) Season 156 256+8.8 242 173 320.8+9.8 315 0.000 2 (Oct - Dec) Total 325 258.4+6.4 115 378 315.7 +7.4 293
  17. 17. Maize Production• Both hybrid and open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) are reported to be grown.• Although the relative amounts of each major type of maize seed has not been calculated, the data suggest that providing both hybrids and OPVs may be necessary to reach the majority of rural households.
  18. 18. RetentionCIMMYT study showed 50% exponential decay of provitamin A inmaize grain, cobs, and flour after 4 months of storage: – Genotype, storage time and temperature are the most important determinant of provitamin A retention. Study at Iowa State University showed 75% retention of provitamin A maize when cooked into porridge NISIR Study (2011) 4 genotypes considered for release in 2012 Storage: 6 months (0, 3, 5, and 6 mo)-stored as grains and cobs Milling: samp and maize meal Cooking: roasted, boiled, nshima, porridge and samp
  19. 19. Bioavailability (Bioconversion)
  20. 20. More Favorable Bioconversion Provitamin A Maize b-carotene to Vitamin A 7:1 Li et al. AJCN 2010Other bioconversion results for biofortified cropsGolden rice 3:1Biofortified Yellow Maize 3:1
  21. 21. HarvestPlus assumption for Assumptions for target levels of target levels of provitamin A in provitamin A in maize, updated with maize research results% of dailymicronutrient ~50% ~50%requirement to achieve Non-Age/physiological status pregnant/non- Children 4-6 Non-pregnant/non- Children 4-6 yr ofgroup lactating yr of age lactating women age womenEstimated average 500 275 500 275requirement (µg/day)Intake (g fresh 400 200 250-300 200weight/day) Retention after 4 months storage: 43%Micronutrient retention Retention after wet milling and cooking: 50%after processing 75% Total cumulative retention: 33%Bioavailability 12:1 7 :1Baseline micronutrientcontent (µg/g dry 0 - 0.5 0 – 0.5weight)Additional content + 15 + 15
  22. 22. Efficacy Trials in 2012Mkushi: Population-based approach (JHU)Nyimba: Stable Isotope approach (UWM)Zambian Collaborators:NFNC and TDRC
  23. 23. Reaching End Users (REU)Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Project HarvestPlus c/o IFPRI 2033 K Street, NW • Washington, DC 20006-1002 USA Tel: 202-862-5600 • Fax: 202-467-4439 HarvestPlus@cgiar.org • www.HarvestPlus.org Image:www.hki.org
  24. 24. Project Description• The HarvestPlus Reaching End Users OrangeFleshed Sweet Potato Project disseminated orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) in Uganda and Mozambiquefrom 2006 to 2009.• First time that a biofortified crop with a visibly differenttrait (color) had been deployed on such a large scale.• Project assessed OFSP adoption rates and whetheradoption resulted in improved vitamin A intakes amongyoung children and their mothers.• 14,000 households in Mozambique and 10,000households in Uganda were reached.
  25. 25. Key Findings: AdoptionThe Project successfully promoted OFSP inMozambique and Uganda. It resulted in adoptionof OFSP by:•77 percent of project households in Mozambique(compared to 9 percent in the control group)65 percent of project households in Uganda,(compared to 4 percent in the control group).
  26. 26. Key Findings: Vitamin A IntakesThe REU intervention resulted in a significant increase intotal vitamin A intakes among young children, olderchildren, and women in both Mozambique and Uganda.In both countries, the change in vitamin A intakes in theintervention groups was accounted for by the increasedintake of vitamin A from OFSP. Image:www.hki.org

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