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Increasing Cassava Productivity in the Context of Sustainable Intensification

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Presentation during IITA R4D week 2015 (23 - 27 Nov. 2015). By: Christine Kreye, Stefan Hauser, Kokou Kintche, Leon Nabahungu, Nhamo Nhamo, Veronica Uzokwe, Marie Yomeni.

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Increasing Cassava Productivity in the Context of Sustainable Intensification

  1. 1. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Increasing Cassava Productivity in the Context of Sustainable Intensification Christine Kreye, Stefan Hauser, Kokou Kintche, Leon Nabahungu, Nhamo Nhamo, Veronica Uzokwe, Marie Yomeni 24th November 2015 (R4D Week 2015)
  2. 2. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Increasing Cassava Productivity in the Context of Sustainable Intensification Christine Kreye, Stefan Hauser, Kokou Kintche, Leon Nabahungu, Nhamo Nhamo, Veronica Uzokwe, Marie Yomeni
  3. 3. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Introduction Background of cassava research at IITA • Cassava – one of IITA’s major mandate crops • Traditionally strong focus on breeding • High yield potential • Pest and disease tolerance/resistance => Foundation for ISFM is available Agronomicefficiency Current practice Germplasm & fertilizer + Organic resource mgt + Local adaptation Germplasm & fertilizer’ + Organic resource mgt Germplasm & fertilizer ‘Full ISFM’ Move towards ISFM Increase in knowledge Responsive soils Poor, less-responsive soils A B C
  4. 4. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium • Cassava agronomy in 4 major projects • CIALCA - Consortium for the Improvement of Agriculture based Livelihoods in Central Africa (Burundi, DR Congo, Rwanda; banana-, maize-, cassava-, and legume systems) • SARD-SC - Support to Agricultural Research for Development of Strategic Crops (multinational; cassava maize rice and wheat) • Cassava weed management • IFAD cassava/legume intensification • Covering ISFM and SI aspects • Improved varieties • Fertilizer application • (Legume) intercropping/organic resource management • Improved agronomic efficiency • Addressing local adaptation Introduction
  5. 5. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Variety Site System Tillage Fertilizer Cassavafreshrootyield(Mgha-1) TME 419 Intercrop Ido Moniya TMS 30572 Monocrop Ridged Flat Fertilizer Nil p<0.0013 p<0.0163 p<0.0001p<0.0001 p<0.0001 www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Agronomic efficiency and weeds Cassava weed management project Stefan Hauser Agronomic efficiency and root yields – in first season planted cassava
  6. 6. 0 5 10 15 20 25 System Site Variety Fertilizer Tillage Usefulcassavafreshrootyield(Mgha-1) Intercrop p<0.0001 RidgeFertilizer FlatNil TME419 Ido MoniyaMonocrop TMS30572 p<0.0001 p<0.0001 p<0.0010 p<0.0013 www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Agronomic efficiency and weeds Cassava weed management project Stefan Hauser Agronomic efficiency and root yields – in second season planted cassava
  7. 7. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Intercropping in SARD-SC RTB/SARD-SC Veronica Uzokwe Intercropping cassava, maize and legumes in Zanzibar, Tanzania
  8. 8. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Local practice: • Intercropping cassava and legumes without specific arrangement Intensification components: • Line arrangements • improved cassava variety • short duration legume • wide inter-row spacing • second legume • fertilizer application ISFM and legume intercropping CIALCA ISFM and Cassava / legume intensification Example of South-Kivu, DRC as take home message?
  9. 9. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Cassava yields in South Kivu, DRC Testing cassava/legume intensification Humidtropics, DRC, South Kivu, and Southwest Nigeria Leon Nabahungu • Local practice: broadcasting cassava intercropped with beans • => intervention improves yield • Organized planting and density • Fertilizer application • Improved varieties • Varietal choice improves yield in intercropping Cassavafreshrootyield[tha-1]
  10. 10. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Steep slopes in South Kivu; effect of interventions on soil erosion Testing cassava/legume intensification Humidtropics, DRC South Kivu and Southwest Nigeria Leon Nabahungu Slight slope Steep slope Soilloss[tha-1]
  11. 11. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Testing cassava/legume intensification Humidtropics, DRC South Kivu and Southwest Nigeria Christine Kreye Transfer of the approach to Southwest Nigeria? Results of demonstration trials – cowpea yield • 3 demonstration trials with 2 replicates each for fertilizer application • Second legume (soya) failed • In on-farm trials during WS, very poor grain quality; soya failed also 2 m spacing Erect 1 m spacing 2 m spacing Branching n.s.Pr > F : 0.03)
  12. 12. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Testing cassava/legume intensification Humidtropics, DRC South Kivu and Southwest Nigeria Christine Kreye Transfer of the approach to Southwest Nigeria? Results of demonstration trials • Second season „dry season“ trials • 2 demonstration trials with 2 replicates each • Treatment is not significant (Pr > F : 0.08) 10 000 plants ha-1 1 m spacing 2 m spacing No legume Legume No Fertilizer Fertilizer No Fertilizer Fertilizer
  13. 13. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Fertilizer response RTB/SARD-SC Nhamo Nhamo Fertilizer response in factorial cassava intercropping trial • Main effect of fertilizer on Cassava yield • Root yields increase with fertilizer • Relatively more assimilates distributed to aboveground biomass Means and 95% C.I. of Rt_yld for fert F1 F2 F3 0 10 20 30 Rt_yld fertMeans and 95% C.I. of R_Hav_ind for fert F1 F2 F3 0 20 40 60 80 R_Hav_ind fert 30 20 10 0 Freshrootyield[tha-1]HI[%] 60 40 0 20 0/0/0 40/40/40 120/80/80 Kg N/P/K ha-1
  14. 14. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Fertilizer response/SSNM SARD-SC 0 700 1400 2100 2800 3500 Root AGB Root AGB Root AGB Control SSNM 0 700 1400 2100 2800 3500 Root AGB Root AGB Root AGB 2MAP B-Nsansi (branching variety)A-Zizila (erect variety) 7.5MAP Production(gplant-1) 5MAP 7.5MAP 2MAP 5MAP Kokou Kintche Biomass accumulation and distribution over the cassava growth period Control – no fertilizer NPK application
  15. 15. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Agronomic efficiency and Leaf harvests Stefan Hauser Lessons learnt/research questions to ask Cassava/legume intensification • A lot of scope for intervention in eastern DRC • Useful to reduce soil erosion • In Southwest Nigeria, we should target the late planting season => legume matures during the DS • For a second legume cassava growth might be too vigorous Intercropping cassava/maize (legume) • Feasible at low cassava yield penalty • Strong interaction with season and intercrop intensity • => crucial to understand farmers’ preferences and importance of intercrop Fertilizer • Root yield increases at reduced HI • Look into nutrient composition (PK, other nutrients) • Look into timing of application Soil tillage • Ridging not very important for cassava yield • But can be a tool for e.g. weed management
  16. 16. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium • Combining component technologies => variety choices => intercropping options (sole/legume/maize) => fertilizer application => weed management => land preparation => planting density => …. Way forward Taking cassava agronomy to scale Way forward • Developing efficient approaches to take cassava agronomy to scale => RTB => bilateral projects such as the African Cassava Agronomy Initiative starting in Jan 2016

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